Psy 315 Week 2 Team Assignment

Week 2 Practice Worksheet psy315 WEEK 2Provide a response to the following questions.1.The Wilcox & Keselman (2003) article from this week’s electronic readings discusses two problems with measures of central tendency: skewness of the data and outliers. Discuss each of these issues and how they affect measures of central tendency. This question is basically about how outliers and skewness affect data analysis Outliers : Outliers are points in the dataset which are values that do notadhere to the average behavior of the data points. They might effect the calculations of Mean a...measure of central tendency is a single value that attempts to describe a set of data byidentifying the central position within that set of data. Skewness is a measure of the asymmetry ofthe probability distribution of a real-valued random variable about its mean. Outlier is anobservation point that is distant from other observations. The median is less affected by outliersand skewed data than the mean, and is usually the preferred measure of central tendency whenthe distribution is not symmetrical. As the mean includes every value in the distribution the meanis influenced by outliers and skewed distributions.When a distribution is skewed the moderemains the most commonly occurring value, the median remains the A measure of central tendency is a single value that attempts to describe a set of data byidentifying the central position within that set of data. Skewness is a measure of the asymmetry of

Unformatted text preview: Neural Plasticity Team C Biological Foundations in Psychology Neural Plasticity 1 Plasticity can be defined as the adjustment of the nervous system to changes in the external milieu (through sensory inputs) or internal milieu (through the effects of damage to the system) and appears to be mainly a property of the cerebral cortex rather than subcortical structures (Huttenlocher, 2002). Following amputation of the let’s say a hand, the brain will undergo extensive organizational changes both due to loss of multisensory input from the absent hand, and as a result of picking up new skills with the intact hand or prosthesis. Some of these neural changes might be advantageous for the amputee but other changes will be damaging, and might even result in chronic pain that is felt in the amputated hand (i.e., ''phantom' limb pain). This sensation (“phantom limb”) occurs because the brain continues to relay motor signals to the missing limb or digit, but does not receive sensory feedback. The individual afflicted by this unusual sensation will perceive movement as if their limb still exists, but will visually recognize that the limb is, in fact, absent. The amputee is not delusional; the brain is simply unable to interpret the conflicting sensory information. In addition to the sensory representation of the body in the cortex, there is a second internal representation of the body in the motor cortex of the brain, which is responsible for controlling the muscles of movement. The brain is a dynamic organ and the network of neural connections changes in response to experience. This capacity for self-modification based on activity is called "brain plasticity." Because the cortical regions associated with a missing limb are no longer receiving sensory information from the limb, nor sending coherent motor signals to the limb, the cortical area will slowly become absorbed by neighboring cortical areas, gradually becoming associated with different body structures. As the function of the cortical region shifts away from the missing limb, the sensation of the phantom limb is gradually lost. Neural Plasticity 2 Studies have been done on animal models, through their motor cortical representations and somatic sensory which can be modified by amputation and peripheral nerve lesions. (Neural control of artificial limbs, 2011. p.8) The studies have used microelectrode penetrations of the animal cortex. The question is can humans with amputations generate and control motor nerve activity due to missing limb movements, and still be able to localize the movements? Plasticity can lead to reversal of reorganizational changes that happen from limb amputation. To enhance functional recoveries, repetition of motor tasks and sensory feedback are helpful. Due to plasticity the use of an artificial arm can be learned by an amputee. Modification of motor cortical areas has been shown when alterations in sensory input from areas of the limb are put in. All this may help with the skill acquisition and learning of an artificial limb. As well, sensory reeducation upon nerve repair, according to Dhillon has “shown improvement in functional results, and this effect is probably centrally mediated.” (Neural Control of artificial limb, 2011 p.10). Once restoration of sensory input has occurred in those with an amputation and phantom movement practice. Amputees could have improved motor control and sensory feedback, from paradigms that involve refinement of motor control and sensory education. Allowing individuals with missing limbs to have the possibility to have an artificial limb and exercise the same movements as before, through training and recovery. Rehabilitation and physical therapy is used to stimulate neurons that have not been active. Amputees whom use prosthesis need to work on reorganizing the brain to use the motor skills that has not been in action. If a constant induction has not taken place to make the legs move then the brain has to strengthen the connection to make those movements. The neurons from the brain to the movement of leg can be increase the availability of hormone norepinephrine to rehabilitee loss of movement. The brain can be restored to make movements by increasing Neural Plasticity 3 repetitive movement of a limb to rebuild activity to sensory nerves to provoke synapses of the nerve cells. According to the National Amputee Coalition “there are 1,285,000 persons in the U.S living with the limb loss (excluding finger and toes) in 1996. The prevalence rate in 996 was 2.9 per 1,000 persons. The incidence rate was 46.2 per 100,000 persons with dysvascular disease, 5.86 per 100,000 person secondary to trauma, 0.35 per 100.000 secondary to malignancy of a bone or joint. The birth prevalence of congenital limb deficiency in 1996 was 25.64 per 100,000 live births. The prevalence rate is highest among people aged 65 years and older ~19.4 per 1,000.” Rehabilitation and physical is one of the most important phases of recovery when copying with an amputation. Many people think that there life will be forever changed and nothing will be the same again. I know this is so because I know of someone and they shared their story with me. However, they were in an accident and leg had to end up getting amputated due poor circulation and damage to the arteries. At first they did not want to accept that they had to get their leg amputated. After researcher literature was given to them regarding the condition they were all for it. After the surgery occurred and the healing process took place he was ready to get his prosthesis. Also, he was so determined that he was ready to combine his energy, will power and willingness to learn how the use his new leg. He was so willing to get his life back because he was told that he could get back to a normal mode of functioning within a few to several months. That was motivation to him and his dream became reality. In conclusion, plasticity is when an adjustment of the nervous system to changes in the external Neural Plasticity 4 milieu (through sensory inputs) or internal milieu (through the effects of damage to the system) and appears to be mainly a property of the cerebral cortex rather than subcortical structures (Huttenlocher, 2002). However when a person suffers and amputation the brain sends signals to the nervous system to changes in the external milieu (through sensory inputs) or internal milieu (through the effects of damage to the system) and appears to be mainly a property of the cerebral cortex rather than subcortical structures (Huttenlocher, 2002). It is a process that person goes threw but the can receive help to get that limb to function again. Timing is the key but remember, slow and steady wins the race. Neural Plasticity 5 References Huttenlocher, P. R. (2002). Neural plasticity: The effects of environment on the development of the cerebralcortex. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Dhillon, G.S. (2011). Neural control of artifical limbs. (Order No. 34545757, The Universityof Utah). Proquest Dissertations and Theses, 82. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/871110083?accountid+458. (871110083) Photo Retrieved on October 13, 2014 from http://ts3.mm.bing.net/th?id=HN.608038945617873926&pid=15.1&P=0 Retrieved on October 12, 2014 from www.web.stanford.edu/neuroplasticity ; Retrieved on October 12, 2014 from www.amputee-coaliatiom.org/nllic_faq.html#2 Neural Plasticity 6 ...
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