Ronde De Nuit Rembrandt Descriptive Essay

The Nightwatch
Rembrandt 1642
Huile sur toile, 363 x 437 cm
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Le tableau est sans doute le plus célèbre et le plus controversé de Rembrandt. Son titre, La ronde de nuit, ne lui a été donné qu'au début du 19eme siècle.

Le titre original, attesté dans la famille du capitaine Banning Cocq sur une esquisse de la peinture, était bien moins sobre : "Scène peinte de la grande salle des arquebusiers de l'hôtel Doelen, dans laquelle le jeune Heer van Purmerlandt [Banning Cocq], transmet ses commandements à son lieutenant, Heer van Vlaerderdingen [Willem van Ruytenburch]"

Le tableau commandé pour être accroché dans la salle de banquet de la nouvelle construction qui allait servir de salle de réunion et de banquet aux gardes civils alors au sommet de leur réputation pourrait ainsi s'intituler : La compagnie de Banning Cocq et Willem van Ruytenburch.

De plus le vernis apposé sur la peinture a beaucoup noirci et le tableau représente une scène à la tombée du jour et non pas de nuit. Au premier plan, le commandant Banning Cocq est vêtu de noir tandis que son lieutenant est habillé de jaune. Tout en conversant, le commandant donne à son lieutenant l’ordre de faire marcher la compagnie au pas.

Une troupe au pas dont chaque soldat a payé son portrait.

Sur un bouclier au-dessus de la porte se trouvent les noms de 18 gardes représentés. Une compagnie comptait davantage de membres et le tableau représente plus d'une trentaine de personnages, ajoutés par Rembrandt afin de rendre la peinture plus vivante. Néanmoins seuls les gardes civils qui payaient pouvaient reconnaitre leurs traits sur les portraits de groupe. Le tableau a été peint pour 1 600 florins, seize gardes civils ayant réglé le montant assez considérable de 100 florins pour être représenté. Le tambour était engagé et figure donc gratuitement sur le tableau. Deux personnages situés sur le côté gauche ont disparu lorsque le tableau à été déplacé pour rejoindre l'hôtel de ville d'Amsterdam en 1715... et découpé pour "s'adapter" à son nouvel environnement entre deux colonnes. Il n’est plus possible de mettre un nom que sur quelques-uns des visages.

Copie de Gerrit Lundens au XVIIe (national gallery)

Dimension à partir de 1715

Les gardes représentés dans La ronde de nuit s’appellent les Kloveniers, d’après le terme klover, qui fait référence à une arme à feu du 16ème siècle, sorte d'arquebuse. Rembrandt a inséré les symboles des Kloveniers de manière spectaculaire et subtile. Spectaculaire est la lumière tombant sur la jeune fille qui est comme la mascotte de la troupe : les serres de la poule sur sa ceinture font référence aux Kloveniers. Le pistolet (à peine visible derrière la poule) symbolise le klover. Dans sa main, la fillette tient la corne de cérémonie des Kloveniers. Le garde situé devant elle dispose d’un casque avec une feuille de chêne, un motif traditionnel des Kloveniers. Sur le revers de la veste du lieutenant, les trois croix des armes d’Amsterdam sont visibles, détail subtil qui permet de déterminer qu’il s’agit des Kloveniers d’Amsterdam.

Il y a inévitablement un sens de la cérémonie dans la représentation d'individus réunis dans un groupe. Néanmoins, alors que Frans Hals, par exemple, rassemble ses différents participants autour d'une scène de banquet, Rembrandt compose son groupe comme si chacun des participants était absorbé, chacun individuellement, dans sa propre action. Le groupe est en effet plus ou moins composé de "types", des portraits et des gestes que Rembrandt détenait dans ses stocks d'études. C'est la composition et le clair obscur qui donnent l'impression de mouvement qui a fortement marqué les contemporains de l'oeuvre.

La ronde de nuit a déménagé plusieurs fois. Jusqu’en 1715, elle était accrochée dans la grande salle des arquebusiers d'Amsterdam, maintenant connu comme l'Hôtel Doelen. En 1715, il a été déplacé à la mairie d'Amsterdam, pour laquelle il a été modifié. En 1887, le Rijksmuseum fait l’acquisition de La ronde de nuit.

Jean-Luc Godard dans Passion (1981) puis Peter Greeneway dans La ronde de nuit (2008) ont interprété à leur manière ce tableau.

 


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