Sindh, also spelled Sind, province of southeastern Pakistan. It is bordered by the provinces of Balochistān on the west and north, Punjab on the northeast, the Indian states of Rajasthan and Gujarat to the east, and the Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh is essentially part of the Indus River delta and has derived its name from that river, which is known in Pakistan as the Sindhu. The province of Sindh was established in 1970. The provincial capital, Karāchi, is situated on the southwestern coast. Area 54,407 square miles (140,914 square km). Pop. (2006 est.) 35,864,000.
The area of present-day Sindh province was the centre of the ancient Indus valley civilization, as represented by the sites of Mohenjo-daro, Amre, and Kot Diji. This early civilization existed from about 2300 to 1750 bce. There is then a gap of more than a millennium before the historical record is renewed with Sindh’s annexation to the (Persian) Achaemenid empire under Darius I in the late 6th century bce. Nearly two centuries later, Alexander the Great conquered the region in 326 and 325 bce. After his death, Sindh came under the domination of the empires of Seleucus I Nicator, Chandragupta Maurya (c. 305 bce), the Indo-Greeks and Parthians in the 3rd–2nd century bce, and the Scythians and the Kushāns from about 100 bce to 200 ce. Sindh’s population adopted Buddhism under the Kushān rulers in the 1st century ce. From the 3rd to the 7th century ce, the area remained under the rule of the Persian Sāsānids.
The Arab conquest of Sindh in 711 heralded the entry of Islam into the Indian subcontinent. Sindh was part of the administrative province of Al-Sind in the Umayyad and ʿAbbāsid empires from 712 to about 900, with its capital at Al-Manṣūrah, 45 miles (72 km) north of present-day Hyderabad. With the eventual weakening of central authority in the caliphate, the Arab governors of Al-Sindh established their own dynastic rule of the region from the 10th to the 16th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries Sindh was ruled by the Mughals (1591–1700) and then by several independent Sindhian dynasties, the last of which lost the region to the British in 1843. At that time most of Sindh was annexed to the Bombay Presidency. In 1937 Sindh was established as a separate province in British India, but after Pakistani independence it was integrated into the province of West Pakistan from 1955 to 1970, at which time it was reestablished as a separate province.
Topographically, Sindh consists of three parallel belts extending from north to south: the Kīrthar Range on the west, a central alluvial plain bisected by the Indus River, and an eastern desert belt. The Kīrthar Range is composed of three parallel tiers of ridges, has little soil, and is mostly dry and barren. The fertile central plain constitutes the valley of the Indus River. This plain is about 360 miles (580 km) long and about 20,000 square miles (51,800 square km) in area and gradually slopes downward from north to south. When the river’s annual flood was magnified by unusually heavy monsoon rains in summer 2010, Sindh was hard hit by the ensuing devastation. The eastern desert region includes low dunes and flats in the north, the Achhrro Thar (“White Sand Desert”) to the south, and the Thar Desert in the southeast.
Sindh has a subtropical climate and experiences hot summers and cold winters. Temperatures frequently rise above 115° F (46° C) between May and August, and the average low temperature of 36° F (2° C) occurs in December and January. Annual precipitation averages about 7 inches (180 mm), falling mainly during July and August.
Except for the irrigated Indus River valley, the province is arid and has scant vegetation. The dwarf palm, kher (Acacia rupestris), and lohirro (Tecoma undulata) trees are characteristic of the western hill region. In the central valley, the babul tree is the most dominant and occurs in thick forests along the banks of the Indus. Mango, date palm, banana, guava, and orange are typical fruit-bearing trees cultivated in the Indus valley. The coastal strip and the creeks abound in semiaquatic and aquatic plants.
Sizable and ongoing migration to the province has resulted in an ethnically mixed population. Indigenous groups are the Mehs, or Muhannas, descendants of the ancient Mēds; Sammas and the related Lakhas, Lohānās, Nigamaras, Kahahs, and Channas; Sahtas, Bhattīs, and Thakurs of Rajput origin; Jats and Lorras, both admixtures of the ancient Scythian and the later Baloch peoples; and Jokhia and Burfat. With the advent of Islam in the region in the 8th century, groups of Arab, Persian, and Turkish origin settled in Sindh: the most numerous among these were the Baloch, who, beginning in the 13th century, migrated to Sindh and made it their second homeland after Balochistān. Another great change occurred with the influx of Muslim refugees from India after the partition of the subcontinent in 1947; a substantial part of the population is now descended from refugees from India.
The major indigenous languages in Sindh are Sindhi, Seraiki, and Balochi. With the entry of numerous linguistic groups from India after 1947, other languages have come to be spoken in the urban areas. Of these, the most common is Urdu, followed by Punjabi, Gujarati, and Rajasthani. The national official language, Urdu, is taught in the province’s schools, along with Sindhi. The province’s population is overwhelmingly Muslim.
The population has grown rapidly since 1947 and is concentrated in the cities and the irrigated central valley. The pace of urbanization has also been swift, and two of the largest cities in Pakistan, Karāchi and Hyderabad, are located in the province.
Agriculture is the basis of the economy. Sindh’s agricultural productivity increased substantially after 1961 because of advances in agricultural research, the use of inorganic fertilizers, and the construction of surface drains to relieve waterlogging and salinity in surface soils. Sindh’s largest water project, the Gudu Barrage, provides water for irrigation. Cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, corn (maize), millet, and oilseeds are the major crops in the province. There are also many orchards yielding mangoes, dates, bananas, and other fruits. Livestock raising is also important, with cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goats the main animals kept. Sindh’s coastal waters contain prawns and shrimp, pomfrets, shad, and catfish in abundance.
Sindh is one of Pakistan’s most industrialized regions, with much of its large-scale manufacturing centred in Karāchi. The province accounts for a substantial part of the country’s entire raw-cotton production and contains many of the nation’s cotton mills. Several large cement factories turn out much of Pakistan’s cement products, and there is a sugar industry with a large number of mills. There are also plants producing steel and automobiles.
Two major highways, running along the east and west banks of the Indus River respectively, traverse the province from south to north. Karāchi is connected by road and railway to Lahore in Punjab province and to Quetta in Balochistān province. The Indus and some of its channels have served as the main waterways since time immemorial. These waterways are now mainly used for the transport of grain and other agricultural products. Karāchi is Pakistan’s major port.
Karāchi is the stronghold of the national press. Major universities include Sindh University, centred in Hyderabad, and Karāchi University. The Sindhi Adabi (literary) board, which publishes works on Sindhi culture, and the Sindh-Provincial Museum and Library are located in Hyderabad; libraries in Karāchi include the State Bank of Pakistan Library, the Liaquat Memorial Library, and others.
"Sind" redirects here. For other uses, see Sind (disambiguation).
Left to right: Mazar-e-Quaid, Makli Hill, Faiz Mahal, Ayub Bridge adjacent to Lansdowne Bridge and Ranikot Fort
|Nickname(s): Mehran (Gateway)|
Location of Sindh in Pakistan
|• Type||Self-governing Province subject to the Federal government|
|• Governor||Muhammad Zubair Umar|
|• Chief Minister||Murad Ali Shah|
|• Chief Secretary Sindh||Rizwan Memon|
|• Legislature||Provincial Assembly|
|• High Court||Sindh High Court|
|• Total||140,914 km2 (54,407 sq mi)|
|• Density||340/km2 (880/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PKT (UTC+5)|
|ISO 3166 code||PK-SD|
|Main Language(s)||Other languages: Brahui, Pashto, Baluchi, Saraiki & Panjabi|
|Notable sports teams|
|Seats in National Assembly||75|
|Seats in Provincial Assembly||168|
Sindh (Sindhi: سنڌ ; Urdu: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country. Historically home to the Sindhi people, it is also locally known as the Mehran. Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, and second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, and Punjab province to the north. Sindh also borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, and Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's landscape consists mostly of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, and the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh. Sindh's climate is noted for hot summers and mild winters. The provincial capital of Sindh is Pakistan's largest city and financial hub, Karachi.
Sindh has Pakistan's second largest economy with Karachi being its capital that hosts the headquarters of several multinational banks. Sindh is home to a large portion of Pakistan's industrial sector and contains two of Pakistan's commercial seaports, Port Bin Qasim and the Karachi Port. The remainder of Sindh has an agriculture based economy, and produces fruit, food consumer items, and vegetables for the consumption other parts of the country. Sindh is also the centre of Pakistan's pharmaceutical industry.
Sindh is known for its distinct culture which is strongly influenced by Sufism, an important marker of Sindhi identity for both Hindus (Sindh has Pakistan's highest percentage of Hindu residents) and Muslims in the province. Several important Sufi shrines are located throughout the province which attract millions of annual devotees.
Sindh's capital, Karachi, is Pakistan's most ethnically diverse city, with Muhajirs, or descendants of those who migrated to Pakistan from India after 1947 and throughout the 1950s and 1960s, making up the majority of the population. Karachi and other urban centres of Sindh have seen ethnic tensions between the native Sindhis and the Muhajirs boil over into violence on several occasions. Sindh is home to two UNESCOWorld Heritage Sites – the Historical Monuments at Makli, and the Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro.
The word Sindh is derived from the Sanskrit term Sindhu (literally meaning "river"), which is a reference to Indus River. The official spelling "Sind" was discontinued in 1988 by an amendment passed in Sindh Assembly.
The Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus. The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind. When the British came to India in the 17th century, they applied the Greek version of the name Sindh to all of South Asia, calling it India. Pakistan's name is derived from an acronym, in which the letter 'S' stands for Sindh.
Main article: History of Sindh
Sindh's first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh, currently in Balochistan, to the west expanded into Sindh. This culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization rivaled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in size and scope, numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems.
The primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a highly cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji. This was one of the most developed urban civilizations of the ancient world. It flourished between the 25th century BCE and 1500 BCE in the Indus valley sites of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. The people had a high standard of art and craftsmanship and a well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which remains un-deciphered. The remarkable ruins of the beautifully planned towns, the brick buildings of the common people, roads, public baths and the covered drainage system suggest a highly organized community.
According to some accounts, there is no evidence of large palaces or burial grounds for the elite. The grand and presumably holy site might have been the great bath, which is built upon an artificially created elevation. This indigenous civilization collapsed around 1700 BCE. The cause is hotly debated and may have been a massive earthquake, which dried up the Ghaggar River. Skeletons discovered in the ruins of Mohen Jo Daro ("mount of dead") were thought to indicate that the city was suddenly attacked and the population was wiped out, but further examinations showed that the marks on the skeletons were due to erosion and not of violence.
The ancient city of Roruka, identified with modern Aror/Rohri, was capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, and finds mentioned early Buddhist literature as a major trading center. Sindh finds mention in the Hindu epic Mahabharata as being part of Bharatvarsha. Sindh was conquered by the PersianAchaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC. In the late 4th century BC, Sindh was conquered by a mixed army led by Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great. Alexander described his encounters with these trans-Indus tribes of Sindh: "I am involved in the land of a lions and brave people, where every foot of the ground is like a well of steel, confronting my soldier. You have brought only one son into the world, but everyone in this land can be called an Alexander." The region remained under control of Greek satraps for only a few decades. After Alexander's death, there was a brief period of Seleucid rule, before Sindh was traded to the Mauryan Empire led by Chandragupta in 305 BC. During the rule of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Buddhist religion spread to Sindh.
Mauryan rule ended in 185 BC with the overthrow of the last king by the Shunga Dynasty. In the disorder that followed, Greek rule returned when Demetrius I of Bactria led a Greco-Bactrian invasion of India and annexed most of northwestern lands, including Sindh. Demetrius was later defeated and killed by a usurper, but his descendants continued to rule Sindh and other lands as the Indo-Greek Kingdom. Under the reign of Menander I many Indo-Greeks followed his example and converted to Buddhism.
In the late 2nd century BC, Scythian tribes shattered the Greco-Bactrian empire and invaded the Indo-Greek lands. Unable to take the Punjab region, they invaded South Asia through Sindh, where they became known as Indo-Scythians (later Western Satraps). By the 1st century AD, the Kushan Empire annexed Sindh. Kushans under Kanishka were great patrons of Buddhism and sponsored many building projects for local beliefs.Ahirs were also found in large numbers in Sindh.Abiria country of Abhira tribe was in southern Sindh.
The Kushan Empire was defeated in the mid 3rd century AD by the Sassanid Empire of Persia, who installed vassals known as the Kushanshahs in these far eastern territories. These rulers were defeated by the Kidarites in the late 4th century.
It then came under the Gupta Empire after dealing with the Kidarites. By the late 5th century, attacks by Hephthalite tribes known as the Indo-Hephthalites or Hunas (Huns) broke through the Gupta Empire's northwestern borders and overran much of northwestern India. Concurrently, Ror dynasty ruled parts of the region for several centuries.
Afterwards, Sindh came under the rule of Emperor Harshavardhan, then the Rai Dynasty around 478. The Rais were overthrown by Chachar of Alor around 632. The Brahman dynasty ruled a vast territory that stretched from Multan in the north to the Rann of Kutch, Alor was their capital.
Arrival of Islam
In 711, Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Sindh and Indus Valley, bringing South Asian societies into contact with Islam. Dahir was an unpopular Hindu king that ruled over a Buddhist majority and that Chach of Alor and his kin were regarded as usurpers of the earlier Buddhist Rai Dynasty, a view questioned by those who note the diffuse and blurred nature of Hindu and Buddhist practices in the region, especially that of the royalty to be patrons of both and those who believe that Chach may have been a Buddhist. The forces of Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir in alliance with the Jats and other regional governors.
In 711 AD, Muhammad bin Qasim led an Umayyad force of 20,000 cavalry and 5 catapults. Muhammad bin Qasim defeated the Raja Dahir, and captured the cities of Alor, Multan and Debal. Sindh became the easternmost State of the Umayyad Caliphate and was referred to as "Sind" on Arab maps, with lands further east known as "Hind". Muhammad bin Qasim built the city of Mansura as his capital; the city then produced famous historical figures such as Abu Mashar Sindhi, Abu Ata al-Sindhi,Abu Raja Sindhi and Sind ibn Ali. At the port city of Debal most of the Bawarij embraced Islam and became known as Sindhi Sailors, who were renowned for their in navigation, geography and languages. After Bin Qasim left, the Umayyads ruled Sindh through the Habbari dynasty.
By the year 750, Debal (modern Karachi) was second only to Basra; Sindhi sailors from the port city of Debal voyaged to Basra, Bushehr, Musqat, Aden, Kilwa, Zanzibar, Sofala, Malabar, Sri Lanka and Java (where Sindhi merchants were known as the Santri). During the power struggle between the Umayyads and the Abbasids. The Habbari Dynasty became semi independent and was eliminated and Mansura was invaded by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi. Sindh then became an easternmost State of the Abbasid Caliphate ruled by the Soomro Dynasty until the Siege of Baghdad (1258). Mansura was the first capital of the Soomra Dynasty and the last of the Habbari dynasty. Muslim geographers, historians and travelers such as al-Masudi, Ibn Hawqal, Istakhri, Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi, al-Tabari, Baladhuri, Nizami,al-Biruni, Saadi Shirazi, Ibn Battutah and Katip Çelebi wrote about or visited the region, sometimes using the name "Sindh" for the entire area from the Arabian Sea to the Hindu Kush.
Soomra dynasty period
Main article: Soomra dynasty
When Sindh was under the ArabUmayyadCaliphate, the Arab Habbari dynasty was in control. The Umayyads appointed Aziz al Habbari as the governor of Sindh. Habbaris ruled Sindh until Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi defeated the Habbaris in 1024. Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi viewed the Abbasid Caliphate to be the caliphs thus he removed the remaining influence of the Umayyad Caliphate in the region and Sindh fell to Abbasid control following the defeat of the Habbaris. The Abbasid Caliphate then appointed Al Khafif from Samarra; 'Soomro' means 'of Samarra' in Sindhi. The new governor of Sindh was to create a better, stronger and stable government. Once he became the governor, he allotted several key positions to his family and friends; thus Al-Khafif or Sardar Khafif Soomro formed the RajputSoomro Dynasty in Sindh; and became its first ruler. Until the Siege of Baghdad (1258) the Soomro dynasty was the Abbasid Caliphate's functionary in Sindh, but after that it became independent.
When the Soomro dynasty lost ties with the Abbasid Caliphate after the Siege of Baghdad (1258,) the Soomra ruler Dodo-I established their rule from the shores of the Arabian Sea to the Punjab in the north and in the east to Rajasthan and in the west to Pakistani Balochistan. The Soomros were one of the first indigenous Muslim dynasties in Sindh of ParmarRajput origin. They were the first Muslims to translate the Quran into the Sindhi language. The Sammas created a chivalrous culture in Sindh, which eventually facilitated their rule centered at Mansura. It was later abandoned due to changes in the course of the Puran River; they ruled for the next 95 years until 1351. During this period, Kutch was ruled by the Samma Dynasty, who enjoyed good relations with the Soomras in Sindh. Since the Soomro Dynasty lost its support from the Abbasid Caliphate, the Sultans of Delhi wanted a piece of Sindh. The Soomros successfully defended their kingdom for about 36 years, but their dynasties soon fell to the might of the Sultanate of Delhi's massive armies such as the Tughluks and the Khaljis.
Samma Dynasty period
Main article: Samma dynasty
In 1339 Jam Unar founded a Sindhi Muslim RajputSamma Dynasty and challenged the Sultans of Delhi. He used the title of the Sultan of Sindh. The Samma tribe reached its peak during the reign of Jam Nizamuddin II (also known by the nickname Jám Nindó). During his reign from 1461 to 1509, Nindó greatly expanded the new capital of Thatta and its Makli hills, which replaced Debal. He patronized Sindhi art, architecture and culture. The Samma had left behind a popular legacy especially in architecture, music and art. Important court figures included the famous poet Kazi Kadal, Sardar Darya Khan, Moltus Khan, Makhdoom Bilwal and the theologian Kazi Kaadan. However, Thatta was a port city; unlike garrison towns, it could not mobilize large armies against the Arghun and Tarkhan Mongol invaders, who killed many regional Sindhi Mirs and Amirs loyal to the Samma. Some parts of Sindh still remained under the Sultans of Delhi and the ruthless Arghuns and the Tarkhans sacked Thatta during the rule of Jam Ferozudin.
Migration of Baloch
Main article: Sindhi Baloch
According to Dr. Akhtar Baloch, Professor at University of Karachi, the Balochi migrated from Balochistan during the Little Ice Age and settled in Sindh and Punjab. The Little Ice Age is conventionally defined as a period extending from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, or alternatively, from about 1300 to about 1850. According to Professor Baloch, the climate of Balochistan was very cold during this epoch and the region was uninhabitable during the winters so the Baloch people emigrated in waves to Sindh and Punjab.
In the year 1524, the few remaining Sindhi Amirs welcomed the Mughal Empire and Babur dispatched his forces to rally the Arghuns and the Tarkhans, braches of a Turkic dynasty. In the coming centuries Sindh became a region loyal to the Mughals, a network of forts manned by cavalry and musketeers further extended Mughal power in Sindh. In 1540 a mutiny by Sher Shah Suri forced the Mughal Emperor Humayun to withdraw to Sindh, where he joined the Sindhi Emir Hussein Umrani. In 1541 Humayun married Hamida Banu Begum, who gave birth to the infant Akbar at Umarkot in the year 1542.
During the reign of Akbar the Great, Sindh produced scholars and others such as Mir Ahmed Nasrallah Thattvi, Tahir Muhammad Thattvi and Mir Ali Sir Thattvi and the Mughal chronicler Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak and his brother the poet Faizi was a descendant of a Sindhi Shaikh family from Rel, Siwistan in Sindh. Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak was the author of Akbarnama (an official biographical account of Akbar) and the Ain-i-Akbari (a detailed document recording the administration of the Mughal Empire).
Shah Jahan carved a subah (imperial province), covering Sindh, called Thatta after its capital, out of Multan, further bordering on the Ajmer and Gujarat subahs as well as the rival Persian Safavid empire.
During the Mughal period Sindhi literature began to flourish and historical figures such as Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, Sulatn-al-Aoliya Muhammad Zaman and Sachal Sarmast became prominent throughout the land. In 1603 Shah Jahan visited the State of Sindh; at Thatta he was generously welcomed by the locals after the death of his father Jahangir. Shah Jahan ordered the construction of the Shahjahan Mosque, which was completed during the early years of his rule under the supervision of Mirza Ghazi Beg. During his reign, in 1659 in the Mughal Empire, Muhammad Salih Tahtawi of Thatta created a seamlesscelestial globe with Arabic and Persian inscriptions using a wax casting method.
Sindh was home to very famous wealthy merchant-rulers such as Mir Bejar of Sindh, whose great wealth had attracted the close ties with the Sultan bin Ahmad of Oman.
In the year 1701 the Kalhora Nawabs were authorized in a firman by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb to administer subah Sindh.
From 1752 to 1762, Marathas collected Chauth or tributes from Sindh. Maratha power was decimated in the entire region after the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. In 1762, Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro brought stability in Sindh, he reorganized and independently defeated the Marathas and their prominent vassal the Rao of Kuch in the Thar Desert and returned victoriously.
After the Sikhs annexed Multan, the Kalhora Dynasty supported counterattacks against the Sikhs and defined their borders.
In 1783 a firman, which designated Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur as the new Nawab of Sindh, and mediated peace particularly after the Battle of Halani and the defeat of the ruling Kalhora by the Talpur baloch tribes.
The Talpur tribe migrated from Dera Ghazi Khan in Punjab to Sindh on the invitation of Kalhora to help them organize unruly Baloch tribes living in Sindh. Talpurs, who learned the Sindhi language, settled in northern Sindh. Very soon they united all the Baloch tribes of Sindh and formed a confederacy against the Kalhora Dynasty. The Talpur Baloch soon gained power, overthrowing the Kalhora after the Battle of Halani to conquer and rule Sindh and other parts of present-day Pakistan, from 1783 to 1843. British East India Company forces led by General Charles James Napier overthrew the Talpur Baloch in 1843.
In 1802, when Mir Ghulam Ali Khan Talpur Baloch succeeded as the Talpur Nawab, internal tensions broke out in the state. As a result, the following year the Maratha Empire declared war on Sindh and Berar Subah, during which Arthur Wellesley took a leading role causing much early suspicion between the Emirs of Sindh and the British Empire. The British East India Company made its first contacts in the Sindhi port city of Thatta, which according to a report was:
"a city as large as London containing 50,000 houses which were made of stone and mortar with large verandahs some three or four stories high ... the city has 3,000 looms ... the textiles of Sindh were the flower of the whole produce of the East, the international commerce of Sindh gave it a place among that of Nations, Thatta has 400 schools and 4,000 Dhows at its docks, the city is guarded by well armed Sepoys".
British and Bengal Presidency forces under General Charles James Napier arrived in Sindh in the mid-19th century and conquered Sindh in February 1843. The Baloch coalition led by Talpur Balochs under Mir Nasir Khan Talpur Baloch was defeated at the Battle of Miani during which 5,000 Talpur Baloch were killed. Shortly afterward, Hoshu Sheedi commanded another army at the Battle of Dubbo, where 5,000 Baloch were killed. The first Agha Khan helped the British in their conquest of Sindh. As result he was granted a lifetime pension. A British journal by Thomas Postans mentions the captive Sindhi Amirs: "The Amirs as being the prisoners of 'Her Majesty'... they are maintained in strict seclusion; they are described as Broken-Hearted and Miserable men, maintaining much of the dignity of fallen greatness, and without any querulous or angry complaining at this unlivable source of sorrow, refusing to be comforted". Within weeks, Charles Napier and his forces occupied Sindh. After 1853 the British divided Sindh into districts and later made it part of British India's Bombay Presidency. Sibghatullah Shah Rashidi pioneered the Sindhi Muslim Hur Movement against the British Raj. He was hanged on 20 March 1943 in Hyderabad, Sindh. His burial place is not known. During the British period, railways, printing presses and bridges were introduced in the province. Writers like Mirza Kalich Beg compiled and traced the literary history of Sindh.
Although Sindh had a culture of religious syncretism, communal harmony and tolerance due to Sindh's strong Sufi culture in which both Sindhi Muslims and Sindhi Hindus partook, the mostly Muslim peasantry was oppressed by the Hindu moneylending class and also by the landed Muslim elite. Sindhi Muslims eventually demanded the separation of Sindh from the Bombay Presidency, a move opposed by Sindhi Hindus. Another campaign in the early 20th century which attracted Sindhi Muslims was the Khilafat Movement, for which support had been generated by the Sufi pirs of Sindh. In that time period Sindh emerged at the forefront of the Khilafat cause. By 1936 Sindh was separated from the Bombay Presidency. Elections in 1937 resulted in local Sindhi Muslim parties winning the bulk of seats. By the mid-1940s the Muslim League gained a foothold in the province and after winning over the support of local Sufi pirs, came to have the support of the overwhelming majority of Sindhi Muslims for its campaign to create Pakistan.
Independence of Pakistan
At the time of Partition there were 1,400,000 Hindu Sindhis, dominating the province's upper middle class. There was very little communal violence in Sindh, in comparison to Punjab. Communal violence in Ajmer, in India, in December 1947 led to Muslim refugees crossing over the Thar Desert to Sindh in Pakistan. This sparked riots in Hyderabad and later in Karachi, although less than 500 Hindu were killed in Sindh between 1947-48 as Sindhi Muslims largely resisted calls to turn against their Hindu neighbours. Hundreds of thousands of Sindhi Hindus fled to India. The arrival of Sindhi Hindu refugees in the Indian town of Godhra sparked the March 1948 anti-Muslim riots there which led to an emigration of Ghanchi Muslims from Godhra to Pakistan. Indian Muslims from the United Provinces, Central Provinces and Bombay continued migrating to and settling in Sindh's urban centers throughout the 1950s and 1960s.
Main article: Demographics of Sindh
|Sindh Demographic Indicators|
|Population growth rate||2.80%|
|Gender ratio (male per 100 female)||112.24|
|Economically active population||22.75%|
Sindh has the 2nd highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces at 0.628. The 1998 Census of Pakistan indicated a population of 30.4 million. According to 2011 estimates the population of Sindh increased 81.5% to a total of 55.24 million since the census of 1998. Sindh was the second largest gainer of population after Balochistan during this period. Just under half of the population are urban dwellers, mainly found in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas, Nawabshah District, Umerkot and Larkana. Sindhi is the sole official language of Sindh since the 19th century.
The Sindhis as a whole are composed of original descendants of an ancient population known as Sammaat, sub-groups related to the Baloch origin are found in interior Sindh and to a lesser extent Sindhis of Pashtun origins. Sindhis of Balochi origins make up about 30% of the total Sindhi population (although they speak Sindhi Saraiki as their native tongue), while Urdu-speaking Muhajirs make up over 19% of the total population of the province while Punjabi are 10% and Pashtuns represent 7%.In August 1947, before partition of India, total population of Sindh was 38,87,070 out of which 28,32,000 were Muslims and 10,15,000 were Hindus
According to Dr. Akhtar Baloch, Professor at University of Karachi, the Baloch migrated from Balochistan during the Little Ice Age. This is conventionally defined as a period extending from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, or alternatively, from about 1300. to about 1850, although climatologists and historians working with local records no longer expect to agree on either the start or end dates of this period, which varied according to local conditions. Professor Baloch said the climate of Balochistan was very cold and the region was inhabitable during the winter so the Baloch people in waves migrated and settled in Sindh and Punjab.
See also: Sufism in Sindh and Hinduism in Sindh
Islam in Sindh has a strong Sufi ethos with numerous Muslim saints and mystics, such as the Sufi poet Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, having lived in Sindh historically. One popular legend which highlights the strong Sufi presence in Sindh is that 125,000 Sufi saints and mystics are buried on Makli Hill near Thatta. The development of Sufism in Sindh was similar to the development of Sufism in other parts of the Muslim world. In the 16th century two Sufi tareeqat (orders) - Qadria and Naqshbandia - were introduced in Sindh. Sufism continues to play an important role in the daily lives of Sindhis.
Sindh also has Pakistan's highest percentage of Hindu residents, with 8% of Sindh's population overall, and 11.6% of Sindh's rural population, classifying itself as Hindu, and over 40% of residents in Tharparkar District identifying themselves as Hindu. The communal harmony between Sindhi Muslims and Hindus is an example of Sindh's pluralistic and tolerant Sufi culture.
Main article: Sindhi language
Sindhi (Arabic script: سنڌي) is spoken by more than 27 million people (in 2016) in the province of Sindh.
Sindhi (like Punjabi) is an Indo-European language, both are linguistically considered to be the daughter languages of Sanskrit. Balochi and Seraiki have also influenced Sindhi which also accommodates substantial Persian, Turkish and Arabic words. Sindhi is written in a modified Arabic script. Today, Sindhi in Pakistan is heavily influenced by Urdu with more borrowed Perso-Arabic elements, while Sindhi in India is influenced by Hindi and borrows more elements from Sanskrit. Key dialects of Sindhi include Kutchi, Lasi, Memoni, Lari, Vicholi, Utradi, Macharia and Dukslinu (which is spoken by Sindhi Hindus).
Other languages in the province include Gujarati and Parkari Koli (sometimes called just Parkari); a language spoken by only 250,000 natives of Sindh according to a 1995 estimate.
Only 7.3% of people Karachi's residents are Sindhi-speaking. Karachi is populated by Muhajirs who speak Urdu. Other immigrant communities in Karachi are Pashtuns from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjabis from Punjab and other linguistic groups from various regions of Pakistan.
Geography and nature
Sindh is in the western corner of South Asia, bordering the Iranian plateau in the west. Geographically it is the third largest province of Pakistan, stretching about 579 kilometres (360 mi) from north to south and 442 kilometres (275 mi) (extreme) or 281 kilometres (175 mi) (average) from east to west, with an area of 140,915 square kilometres (54,408 sq mi) of Pakistani territory. Sindh is bounded by the Thar Desert to the east, the Kirthar Mountains to the west and the Arabian Sea in the south. In the centre is a fertile plain around the Indus River.
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750