Rubrics are explicit grids, schemas, lists, to evaluate and classify products of learning outcomes assessment into different categories that vary across a given continuum.
Rubrics are handy in measuring student learning given some specific learning outcomes.
There are different ways to build a rubric, often the building process takes some thought and time, but the rubric gives a clear picture to the student and instructor about the level of performance expected for a certain task.
Rubrics are criteria that cover the essence of a performance that is judged with them. Rubrics help define expected performance, standards of quality, levels of accomplishment. They are also helpful in diagnostic assessment and providing feedback to students.
Holistic vs. Analytical
Holistic rubrics give a single score or rating for an entire product or performance based on overall impression of a student’s work.
The rater considers all quality judgments in one big component and overall judgment and comes up with one single score.
- Student shows complete understanding of the tasks and concepts
- Clear identification of key concepts and important elements
- Excellent writing style
- Pertinent insight and demonstration of appropriate application of main ideas
- Understanding of most critical concepts
- Shows identification of some key concepts but most of the parts are missing
- Adequate writing style with minor errors, some limited clarity in expressions
- Scarce demonstration of application of main ideas
- Misunderstanding of majority of concepts or no understanding of concepts and processes
- Irrelevant or illegible response that has no relation to the key concepts
- Unsuccessful attempt to communicate
- Lack of demonstration in application of main ideas
Holistic Rubrics Are Suitable for …
- Judging simple products or performances
- Getting a quick snapshot of overall quality or achievement; often used when a large number of students are graded
- Judging the impact of a product or performance more than the specific detailed parts of the performance.
There is no detailed analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the performance or product, so holistic rubrics are not useful as diagnostics or for giving students detailed feedback on their performance. Holistic rubrics offer little in the way of help to students who would improve their performance.
Analytical rubrics divide a product into essential dimensions (traits), and each dimension is judged separately. A separate score is given for each dimension or trait considered important for the assessed performance.
Scoring of each trait can be done by using a Likert scale (e.g., 1 to 5 where 1 is poor quality, 3 is average, and 5 is excellent quality).
Example—Six-trait Analytical Writing Rubric
Each of the following traits is scored separately on a scale of 1 to 5:
Ideas: the main idea of the assignment, content ideas, main theme, details in the theme
Organization: the internal structure of the writing, the core and central meaning, logical and creative pattern of ideas
Voice: the feeling and beliefs of the writer come through the words
Word choice: rich, precise, scholarly, and eloquent language that enlightens the reader
Sentence fluency: the rhythm and flow of the language, the word patterns, the way the writing plays to the ear
Conventions: the mechanical correctness of the work as an entire piece, along with grammar and usage of words (spelling, capitals, punctuation).
Analytical Rubric Are Suitable for …
- Judging complex performances that involve multiple dimensions (skills that must be assessed). Each step in the rubric can be designed to measure one specific trait.
- Provide more specific information and feedback to students about their strengths and weaknesses.
- Can be used to target instruction to specific areas in need for improvement.
- Analytical rubrics help students come to a better understanding about the nature and quality of work they must perform.
- More time consuming to craft and use in grading
- Lower inter-rater agreement because of the many and detailed traits
- Less desirable in large scale assessment context when many students must be graded and when speed in grading is essential
General vs. Task-Specific Rubrics
General (generic) rubrics can be used across similar performances (e.g., all Blackboard postings across a semester; all group interactions in the semester). Construct one rubric, and use it for similar tasks. Sometimes the tasks are so similar that there is no reason to construct a detailed rubric for each.
- When grading portfolios or any collection of different assignments that must be graded overall, or where developing a rubric for each piece would be time consuming and not important.
- To help students understand the big picture and when students need to be able to apply what they learned in one task to the next task
- When the product is more important for assessment purposes than the process/steps of that performance
- When the students must come up with general ideas and when they must think in order to develop particularized performance
- When there are many different possibilities to solve a problem or there are many ways for a successful performance
Task-specific rubrics can be used only for a particular task or assignment (e.g., rubric for the Final exam,; rubric for a project proposal).
- When it is easier and more consistent to get fast scoring. Easier to train the scorers
- When you want to know if students are able to perform specific methods and procedures
There are times when the best rubric is a combination of generic and task-specific rubric traits. For example: when you want to see whether or not students know how to develop specific parts or steps in a project proposal but, at the same time, you are also interested in the overall quality of writing.
Number of score points for rubrics
- Sufficient range to evaluate the performance
- Enough points to evaluate different levels of quality
- If your rubric needs to fit a particular standard, use the same amount of points.
- Tracking changes over a longer period of time requires more points than a limited or shorter time.
- Have good reasons to pick odd or even number of points: odd numbers have a tendency to gravitate to the mean or a more neutral assessment; but, if your goal is to delimitate the average, then an even number of points is the best choice.
- 1-5 point scale is similar to A-F grading, at times students confuse points with grades
Arter, J. & McTighe, J. (2001). Scoring rubrics in the classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Brennan, R. L. (Ed.) (2006). Educational measurement (4th Ed.). NCME. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Earl, L. M. (2003). Assessment as learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Huba, M. E. (2000). Learner-centered assessment on college campuses. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
These pages are based on the work of Bonnie B. Mullinix
(see related TLT Group Flashlight Rubric pages)
Rubrics are a powerful tool for supporting learning by guiding learners activities and increasing their understanding of their own learning process. The following links down or out to support and supplemental materials that will help you to more deeply explore rubrics and their use as an effective assessment tool.
This page includes:
(links jump you down the page)
Before you begin exploring, try your hand at this interactive matching game: Assessment Terms - A Matching Puzzle
[Note: this interactive game was developed using Hot Potatoes (a freely available activity and assessment tool).]
In simple terms – A Rubric shows how learners will be assessed and/or graded. In other words, a rubric provides a clear guide as to how ‘what learners do’ in a course will be assessed.
In formal terms - The following definition, taken from the glossary of Understanding Educational Measurement by Peter McDaniel (1994), also provides a standard definition:
A scoring rubric is a set of ordered categories to which a given piece of work can be compared. Scoring rubrics specify the qualities or processes that must be exhibited in order for a performance to be assigned a particular evaluative rating.
Types and Uses of Rubrics
A Rubric for Rubrics- Key levels and criteria to use when assessing rubrics are proposed in this working matrix. It provides a solid orientation to the issues and considerations associated with constructing rubrics.
Creating a Rubric – Key Steps
- Identify the type and purpose of the Rubric - Consider what you want to apply assess/evaluate and why (see matrix above).
- Identify Distinct Criteria to be evaluated - Develop/reference the existing description of the course/assignment/activity and pull your criteria directly from your objectives/expectations. Make sure that the distinction between the assessment criteria are clear.
- Determine your levels of assessment - Identify your range and scoring scales. Are they linked to simple numeric base scores? Percentages? Grades or GPAs?
- Describe each level for each of the criteria, clearly differentiating between them - For each criteria, differentiate clearly between the levels of expectation. Whether holistically or specifically, there should be no question as to where a product/performance would fall along the continuum of levels. (Hint: Start at the bottom (unacceptable) and top (mastery) levels and work your way “in”).
- Involve learners in development and effective use of the Rubric - Whether it is the first time you are using a particular rubric or the 100th time, learner engagement in the initial design or on-going development of the assessment rubric helps to increase their knowledge of expectations and make them explicitly aware of what and how they are learning and their responsibility in the learning process.
- Pre-test and retest your rubric - A valid and reliable rubric is generally developed over time. Each use with a new group of learners or a colleague provides an opportunity to tweak and enhance it.
Sample Rubrics and Scoring Feedback Sheets
The following are Sample Rubrics for your reference, modification and use (please credit their origin as appropriate/when shared publically):
|Versions for Viewing, Printing & Adaptation|
|Course Grading Rubric||Web||Word|
|Team Presentation Rubrics|
|Practicum and Portfolio Assessment Rubric||Web||Word|
|Feedback and Scoring Sheets***|
|Reaction/Position Paper Feedback Sheet||Web||Word|
|Research Paper Feedback Sheet||Web||Word|
|Abstract Assessment Feedback Sheet||Web||Word|
*** scoring/feedback sheets designed to be used with a full descriptive rubric (e.g. course grading)
References and Guides to Rubric Development:
A wealth of information regarding Rubric Development is available. Below are some collected online reference for your continuing use and exploration.
For Guides to developing Rubrics in support of teaching, learning and self reflection:
This Rubric reference page - http://www.tltgroup.org/resources/Rubrics.htm
Flashlight Resources - TLT Group assessment, evaluation and survey tools - Flashlight Online 2.0 was a project of the TLT Group for many years managed through the University of Washington. with budget cuts in recent years, theFlashlight tool was retired. Sample Rubrics and useful information can still be found at: & - http://www.tltgroup.org/resources/flashlight/rubrics.htm.
Scoring Rubrics - http://ericae.net/faqs/rubrics/scoring_rubrics.htm - Definitions & Construction
Rubric Basics - http://www.inov8.psu.edu/toolbox/RubricBasics.pdf - Definitions, types, purposes, learner involvement, learning enhancement and rubric use (Schreyer Institute for Innovation in Learning) .
Rubric Builder - https://www.e-education.psu.edu/facdev/id/assessment/rubrics/rubric_builder.html - An interactive web page rubric that can score and give item specific feedback Rubistar - http://rubistar.4teachers.org/ - Helps you construct online rubrics
Roobrix - http://roobrix.com/ - Converts your rubric scores into percentages.
Waypoint - http://www.subjectivemetrics.com/index.cfm - online, interactive rubrics that let you create tailored narrative feedback for students based on your rubric and, on a larger scale (multiple classes, programs, institution-wide) collect and analyze longitudinal data on student performance.
Search for sample rubrics at:
Merlot - http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm - Online repository of learning objects and materials for higher education (particularly online teaching, but contains face-to-face and hybrid options).
The Rubric Bank - http://intranet.cps.k12.il.us/Assessments/Ideas_and_Rubrics/Rubric_Bank/rubric_bank.html - Some examples of rubrics in key disciplines (mostly K-12, many at state levels).
The POD Network Custom Search Engine - http://www.podnetwork.org/search.htm#faculty – allows you to search Centers for Teaching and Learning within Higher Education for sample rubrics. Example:
Selected Professional Presentations referencing this web-based information:
The Power of Rubrics: Assessment as a Guide to Learning
TLT Group Online Institute, Tuesdays, July 14, 21 & 28, 2009.
Measuring up to Learning Expectations: Rubrics as a Guide to Learning
& Constructing Rubrics
Process Education Conference 2009, Interactive Keynote & Workshop, Gaston College, NC, July 10 2009.
Assessment as a Guide to Learning I: Introduction to Rubrics
& Assessment as a Guide to Learning II: Developing Rubrics
Sessions offered at SCSU 21st Century Faculty Development Academy, June 2 & 3, 2009 and
Greenville Technical College, Fall 2008 & Spring 2009.
A Rubric for Rubrics ~ Reconstructing and Exploring Theoretical Frameworks
POD Network in Higher Education Conference 2007, Pittsburgh, PA. October 26, 2007: 3:45-4:45 pm
Rubrics in the Age of Accountability: Transparent Assessment in Support of Learning
NJEDge - DLAAB Presentation on Rubrics
Summary Plan and website: http://web.njit.edu/~ronkowit/teaching/rubrics/index.htm
Puzzling through Assessment: Rubrics and Interactive Assessment Techniques
Fairleigh Dickinson University Teaching with New Technologies (TNT) Institute. May 18, 2005: 2:30-4 pm
Summary Plan / Handout with links
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