Talent Management Essay

Talent Management


Talent Management is a process that has the goal to hire, develop and integrate new workers, develop and retain current workers, and attract highly skilled workers to work for a firm. Talent Management is part of the Human resource management process. It is really important for several reasons. Actually, it can be a significant source of competitive advantage. It is also an important part of organizational strategies. Finally the way organizations treat their employees has been found to affect a lot organizational performance.

The quality of an organization depends on the quality of people it hires and keeps. Getting and keeping competent employees is the key to success in every company, whether the company is a start-up or has been in business for years. All managers have to engage in Human Resource Management and Talent Management such as interviewing job candidates, orienting new employees, and evaluating their employees' performance.

Talent Management can be divided into four parts that we are now going to develop here: hiring talent, assessing talent and performance, compensating and rewarding employees, developing employees and their leadership.


I) Hiring Talent

Once a company's structure is settled, it is indispensable to find people to fill the jobs that have been created. That is the "hiring part" of the talent management process. It is an important task that involves the right number of the right people in the right place and at the right time.

People in a company are the most precious asset, so it is really important to choose them well when you hire them. This is the job of the recruiting specialist from the Human resources and also the Manager which is going to work with the new employee.

The Hiring phase of the talent management process is divided into three parts: human resource planning, recruitment and selection.

The Human resource planning is a process by which managers make sure that they have the right number and capable people in the right places and at the right times. Thanks to planning, companies avoid people shortage and surpluses. This is the theoretical part the hiring process. Human resource has two steps: assessing current human resources (take inventory of the current employees) and meeting future Human resource needs (determined by the company's mission, goals and strategy).

An important part in the process of hiring new talents is for the company to create a job analysis, a job description and a job specification. A job analysis defines the job and the behaviors that are required to perform it. A job description is a statement that describes the job. A job specification is also a statement that specifies the minimum qualifications that an applicant must have to be successful in the job.

Then comes the recruiting part. There are several means to look for candidates before recruiting them. They can be summarized like that:

SourceAdvantagesDisadvantages
InternetLarge number of people, immediate feedbacksMany unqualified candidates
Employee referralsProvided by current employee, most of the time good candidatesDon't increase the diversity of employees
Company Web sitePossibility to target specific groups, wide distributionMany unqualified candidates
College recruitingLarge number of candidatesLimited to entry-level position
Professional recruiting organizationsGood knowledge of the industry goals and requirementsLittle commitment to specific organization

Even if online recruiting is popular and allows companies to indentify candidates quickly, those applicants may not be as good as the ones found by using other sources. Actually, research has demonstrated that employees' referrals produce most of the time the best candidates. As the current employees know both the job and the person being recommended, they have a tendency to refer applicants who are well qualified. Moreover, current employees often feel that their reputation is in danger if they advice a person that is not qualified.

The next step in the hiring process of talent management is the selection. The selection has the goal to determine which applicant is the best qualified to do the job. Managers have the obligation to select very carefully because hiring errors can have significant implication for the future of the company.

Selection involves predicting which applicants will be successful if hired. A decision is correct when the applicant was predicted to be successful and proved to be successful on the job, or when the applicant was predicted to be unsuccessful and was not hired. It is really important to make the right decision because hiring the wrong person can generate a lot of costs for the company (for example training costs that a qualified person would not need).

They are a lot of different selection devices that help managers to select the right person. They include application forms (best used for gathering employee information), job related written tests, work sampling (appropriate for complex nonmanagerial and routine work), assessment centers (appropriate for top level managers), interviews (widely used, but most appropriate for managerial positions), background investigation (used to verify application data), physical exams (used for work that needs physical requirements and for insurance purposes), tests of personality (to see if the personality of the applicant fits with the company culture and team work), etc.

When managers want to hire someone, they need to explain really clearly the job to the applicant. They have to tell him the good things but also the bad things of the job and the company so as the future employee will not be disappointed by his job. A realistic job preview is really important because it gives an applicant realistic expectations about the job he is going to do. This should increase employee job satisfaction and reduce turnover.


II) Accessing talent and performance management

Organizations require more and more to compete in a quickly changing business environment and that's why they need to make better and faster strategic decisions at several stages: recruiting, performance assessment, compensations...

New companies or online companies provide new solutions on talent and performance management to others, especially because it need time to implement a new management strategy.

Indeed, performance management is becoming essential in companies, and especially to build a productive and engaged workforce. The aim is to align all the talents with the business goals. This kind of management is used to help the employees to understand their roles, to be informed of the strategic business objectives and of what they are expected to do or to allow them to be aware of the performance success as viewed by the management and customers...

Several solutions on talent and performance management are used have been adopted by a large number of companies.

So, one of them is to give to the employees access to their own information through a username and password that allow them to check their goals or some reports on their progress... This solution contributes to make the employee responsible of its own career, to allow them to feel empowered in determining the course of their career path and in that way, to participate to the growth of the company.

Another performance tool is to improve communication between managers and employees by teaching managers to engage a constructive conversation with their team.

On other objective is to implement new tools based on the simplicity to allow the company to gain time. For examples, many managers have a lot of good ideas but have a "blank page syndrome". The issue could be to hire a "Writing Assistant" to help managers to quickly find the words for any situations...

  • the goal management

  • the development planning and training

  • the workforce and succession planning

The goal management consists in recognizing goals of individual team-member, in resolving conflicts among goals and in prioritizing goals for optimal team-collaboration and effective operations. It makes the employee aware of its mission and it allows to clarify his missions.

The workforce planning has the goal of choosing the right people across the organization in the right place and in the right time.

The succession planning also participates to the implementation of talent management because its focus is specifically on having the right leadership in place at every level of the organization. Indeed the quality of employee work life is influenced by the quality of the leader they work for, what give all the importance of the elaboration of a succession planning


III) Compensating and rewarding employees

It is absolutely necessary for a company to have a good system of reward and compensation, because employees feel that their work is not valued, they will loose motivation and maybe even counterproductive, which may be a very serious issue for the company.

That is why successful talent managers must be able to create an environment that will drive employee performance... Of course, this is not that simple. There are many different ways to reward somebody's work, and it is hard to find what will stimulate someone, what will make him committed to his work.

Obviously, the first thing that comes to mind is money. If an employee has a good salary, plus a bonus if he meets his objectives, he will certainly be motivated. And when we take a look at the study carried out in 2006 by Innecto Reward Consulting, saying that nearly three-quarters of the 690 UK executives aged under 40 years old polled said they now expected a pay rise every year, and that two-thirds of them claimed that financial reward is now the number one career motivator, it seems that money have a colossal impact on motivation.

However, compensating and rewarding employees with money is a huge cost for the company. Fortunately, it is not the only way to motivate employees; on the contrary: lots of studies claimed that simple recognition delivers better results than cash!

Indeed, one result of the Japanese National Institute for Physiological Sciences is that �paying people a compliment appears to activate the same reward center in the brain as paying them cash.� Very surprising, but there is more: with a study of 2008, consulting firm White Water Strategies found acknowledging staff achievements had the same impact on job satisfaction as a 1 percent increase in pay. Finally, a study realized in 2004 by the University of Chicago say that noncash incentives were 24 percent more powerful at boosting performance than cash incentives.

As this may seems a little bit theorical, an exemple might be helpful. MBNA is a credit card company had a problem to motivate its 2600 sales team. In order to solve this matter and increase productivity, the firm contacted consultancy Maritz, which designed a programme called HITS!, offering weekly, monthly and bi-annual music prizes based on performance. This program, supported by posters, weekly e-bulletins and promotions at team meetings, consists in offering ipods, cds, live concerts when employees meets their objectives.

This program was very efficient on the young employees of MBNA, they were talking about it, eagger to know what the next event will be,...

Thanks to this program, MBNA achieved its revenue targets and stabilized its retention rates.

Andy Grannell, internal communications manager at the firm, says: "The programme has provided MBNA with an opportunity to reward our people to the next level. The money-can't-buy prizes on offer have re-invented the whole incentive genre within our corporation."

This program illustrates the fact that there seems to have a new trend in the rewarding policy. Nowadays, it is not just about money. More and more, people care for other type of rewards, such as extra-holiday days, childcare schemes, flexible working and job stability. Furthermore, a successful talent manager must not forget recognition, compliments and acknowledging achievements, which are very efficient tools, because they are as important as rewards for employees, and make them more productive.


IV) Developing employees' leadership

Today, developing employees' leadership is becoming more and more important. In most companies, in the most recent research, we can find that leadership development is the number one talent management function that needs the most improvement, as identified by 43% of companies. In this same study, 60% of companies (up from 51% in 2007) identified "gaps in the leadership pipeline" as their number one talent issue (see Bersin & Associate: Leadership development). So, we can see that leadership development is really important.

What is leadership development?

Leadership development is the will of companies to develop their talented people who can help the company to develop, keep the company having more and more profits and manage and lead the company and its employees very well.

How to develop leadership?

Leadership has to be based on trust. A leader must have a good communication with the employees and a good leader should know the strengths and weaknesses of the employees, put them in the right position and help them to do their best. A good leader can help the employees to grow up, develop and make the employees feel that they do the work also for themselves.

If a company wants to allow an employee to be the manager, the company has firstly to find out if the employee is theory X or theory Y. If the employee is theory X, he can't be a good leader because his motivation is extrinsic. The company has to choose an employee who is theory Y to make him a manager and a leader. Because people who are theory Y like challenges and are really motivated by their work and what they do for the company, they can do their best to achieve the goals of the company, and so become great managers and leader.

Secondly, the company has to build up a pipeline to collect all of the employees' strengths and weaknesses that can help them to develop in the company by knowing what kind of work an employee is the best at.

Thirdly, a company has to set up a good way to exchange and speak with its employees. A leader/manager can hear their suggestions and their problems because great leaders are great listeners. A leader/manager can also help employees to make the right decisions.

Fourthly, a company has to build confidence in the staff. A good leader should have goodwill. All the employees have to believe in him and a good leader doesn't have to impose the staff to do something, the employees are self motivated if they like their leader and they can finish the works by themselves.


To conclude on leadership, a citation by Dag Hammarskj�ld is perfect:

"Your position never gives you the right to command. It only imposes on you the duty of so living your life that others may receive your orders without being humiliated."

How we will present "Talent Management"

What we plan to do is a little roleplay, representing the different steps for an employee in a company. One of us will be the employee, and the others, talent managers.

First, the hiring. What make this candidate special, what are is specialities, what can he bring to the company and how can it enjoy his abilities,...

Then, assessment of his performances. Has he been helpful, how did he do his job....

As the employee will be a good and serious worker, the company will reward him, trying to see what kind of reward is the most efficient for him: Money? Perks? Recognition?

To conclude, our employee will be in charge of a team. How does he communicate with his team, how does he lead it,...

To conclude, we notice that the organizational talent implemented by a company will have a lot of impacts on its ability to achieve its strategic objectives and to execute its performance improvement.

To manage talent, a company needs to identify, develop and retain people to match them to the goals they will achieve the most effectively.

There is three essential steps in the talent management. The first one will consist on a clear identification of talent to match people to fill the job that they have created. The challenge is to select people who have the profile the most adequated to the job description with skills and talent required for this job. Indeed, employees are considered as an essential asset for the company and talent management help them to use this "resource" in the best way.

The second step consists in the implementation of several tools that will allow the company to measure the performance of its staff and to take advantage at best of this resource.

Finally, the company has to think about rewarding and compensations to retain its talents and the best way to reward them is often money and bonus but it also represents a real cost for the employer.

Finally, the company will develop employee's leadership giving them responsabilities and making them more autonomous. The goal is to find the best leaders, able to communicate and share suggestions with its staff...


References:

  • Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter (2009), Management, Pearson International Edition
  • http://www.authoria.com/talent-management-images/talent-management-development.gif
  • Bersin & Associate: Leadership development.
    • http://www.talentmgt.com

    • http://www.personneltoday.com

    • http://www.scribd.com/doc/21954276/management-10th-Ch10-by-stephen-p-robbins

    Source: Essay UK - http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/business/talent-management.php


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    Linda Senior Lecturer in Economics, Essay UK Researcher Team.

    I completed my Master’s in Human Resource Management at a UK University. I have also done CIPD certification which gave me insights into employment law and employee relations in the United Kingdom. Before pursuing my Master’s in HRM, I worked for two years in the field of Management and Information Technology. Academically, I have scored a distinction overall with various awards including a business school award from the University of Birmingham. As part of my academic project I have undertaken research on Performance Management Strategies, where I analysed the performance management system of the organisation and gave suitable recommendations based on the strategies, which were highly appreciated by the organisation. My expertise is in HRM, International HRM, Change Management, International Business Context, Training and Development, Competitiveness, CIPD, Industrial Relations and Leading & Managing within organisations. I am looking forward to conducting research in employee relations for which I have enrolled on a PhD at one of the best universities in the UK.

    Talent Management as a Business Strategy.

    A business cannot be successful without having the right people in the right place. Ashton and Morton said, “Getting the right people in pivotal roles at the right time should be nothing new to HR professionals, but when implemented effectively, talent management can create long-term organizational success” (Ashton and Morton, 2005, p28). Organisations have realised the fact that good employees are their greatest asset and are what gives them the competitive advantage in the long run. This objective made the HR professionals in these organisations concentrate on finding and building a talented workforce. With the unfolding of the 21st century, there is a growing awareness among HR professionals to focus more on identifying and retaining a talented workforce and making them actively engage in the business’ strategies. The term ‘The war of talent’ by Mc Kinsey & Company, from their research on talent management practices in various organisations, outlines that the high quality of an organisation’s talent will determine its success in the competitive business environment (Michael et al., 2001). Organisations have realised that talent is an intangible asset and better talent will enable them to perform better when compared to their competitors. This made HR professionals in the organisations emphasize and change their approach towards talent management. This essay will discuss how talent management plays a vital role in formulating the business strategies of an organisation and examines how an organisation with better talent can possess a competitive advantage.

    In the last three decades, the changes in the workplace from industrial revolution to recent global economic crisis resulted in development and adaption of new talent management practices in organisations. Many new strategies were adopted beyond traditional processes in an effort to manage and engage a talented workforce formulating various business strategies. With the phenomenon of globalisation and increase in outsourcing of company operations to other countries, by the end of 20th century organisations were mainly concentrating on attracting a talented and skilled workforce to work for them (Michael et al., 2001). This evoked a fight termed ‘The war of talent’ between organisations in the process of gaining competitive advantage by attracting, developing, motivating and retaining the talented workforce. This realisation and changes in the business environment made talent management practices a top priority for organisations (Lawyer, 2008). Talent management is the process of identifying, selecting, developing and deploying new employees; engaging, motivating and retaining current employees and attracting a highly skilled workforce to perform valuable operations in the organisation (Berger and Berger, 2003). It ensures that all the people, processes and resources are in place to help the business deliver its strategy. From the research of Mc Kinsey & Company it can be analysed that companies which possessed talented people in their key positions were able to attain high performance and increase their organisation’s profits (Michael et al., 2001). It can be understood that the organisations which realise the significance of strategic talent management and manage their business accordingly will reap higher benefits and rewards1.

    Traditionally, the evolution of human resource management is based on the fact that an effective and efficient workforce can improve strategic performance and functional excellence (Beardwell and Claydon, 2007). Talent management may be more a new language of old HR work which is committed to improving organisational performance by involving employees, line managers and HR practitioners (Frank, Finnegan and Taylor, 2004). Today, talent management has become a matter of strategic importance for many organisations. This need for talent management is also driven by macro factors such as growth of new cycles of business, changing workforce demographics, composite economic conditions and growth of new enterprises (Ashton and Morton, 2005). The growth of new cycles of business for an organisation often requires a variety of talent in order to out-perform in each cycle. This emphasises the need for integration of talent management practices within a business strategy and implementation of those processes at every level in the organisation. Also, with the reduction of labour pools due to a change in workforce demographics, there is every possibility of compression of talent in the organisation which evokes the need for talent management. The growth of new enterprises will also result in the attraction of a talented workforce from the large organisations, which will also stress the need for efficient talent management practices. Finally, the recent financial crisis and present complex economic conditions emphasises the need for a talented workforce in formulating crucial business strategies for an organisation at every level (Ashton and Morton, 2005).

    At a macro level, another important factor that drives the need for talent management practices is a shift in global focus on development of leadership at every level of the organisation. This leads to a human capital centric (HCC) organising structure which includes integration of a business strategy with talent practices, emphasis on leadership, sharing of information, building of talent at every level and significance of performance management activities. In contrast, a structure centric (SC) organisation consists of traditional bureaucratic hierarchies where managers do not make any effort to engage, motivate and retain employees. It is a much more bureaucratic approach where only the manager talks at all the levels and never considers the need to make future leaders (Lawyer, 2008). This is the primary issue with many organisations, as many still follow a SC approach. But, the SC approach can still work provided management make modest effort to implement talent management practices. All it needs to do is to attract, retain and motivate the right talent within the organisation as it helps to attain high performance through the human capital, making it a competitive advantage factor for the organisation. However, for organisations which mainly rely on the competences of their human capital in order to excel in their performance adoption of a human centric approach is crucial. This is because organising is not just controlling of people costs but it is about how well the human capital (people) performs in their operations at every level, as they form key indicators of performance for an organisation (Lawyer, 2008).

    The main issue with many organisations is that they emphasise more on attracting employees to their company but fail to concentrate on identifying, retaining and developing talent within the organisation (Frank and Taylor, 2004). Many companies which realised the importance of having a talented workforce adopted talent management practices to solve employee retention problems. Also, development of a HCC organising structure will help to identify and develop people within the organisation, making them future leaders. This organising structure also enables them to share information with other departments in the organisation which helps to gain knowledge across all levels of the organisation. In a HCC approach, performance management is one of the most important activities where employees are assessed based on their performance. The organisation’s development of talent and leadership qualities in employees at every level is handed over to line managers. Thus, a HCC approach will concentrate on integration of talent management practices with the business strategy (Lawyer, 2008). For instance, the business strategy should include duties for line managers and senior managers to develop the required skills and knowledge to their next sub-ordinates. When a talent management system integrates with a business strategy across all processes of the organisation it will not only help to develop a talented workforce across all levels but will also enable everyone in the organisation to realise the business objectives of the organisation as a whole (Lawyer, 2008).

    It can be understood that talent management is a strategic and holistic approach to both the HR department and business planning, which creates organisational effectiveness. This enhances both the performance and talent of the workforce which makes a great difference in the performance of organisations currently and in future. Also, it aims to enhance performance in the workforce across all levels in an organisation enabling everyone to reach their potential targets. In order to achieve high performance and impose talent at all levels, organisations should possess the following five talent management imperatives which help to deliver the business strategy (Michaels et al., 2001):

    1. Imparting a ‘talent mindset’ at all levels of the organisation: To achieve organisational goals and objectives, it is important to build a strong talent management pool across different levels of the organisation. It is the process of building future leaders and imparting a strong belief of a ‘talent mindset’. People with a talent mindset will always try to excel in their operations and create new ways to enhance talent. They ensure integration of talent management practices with a business strategy so that the long-term objectives of the organisation are achieved (Michaels et al., 2001).
    2. Creation of ‘Employee Value Proposition (EVP)': The creation of gaining EVP will help to bring talent into the organisation. It defines what value proposition the organisation provides its employees. People are mainly attracted to organisations for  four reasons, becuase: it facilitates exciting and challenging work; it offers good remuneration and rewards; it is a strong brand; and it offers future growth and development for its staff.  These factors help to create a winning EVP, thus contributing to employee retention and satisfaction. Figure 1 shows the creation of a winning EVP.
    3. Attracting a talented workforce: Organisations should always seek highly talented people who can deliver their business objectives effectively. Organisations mainly focus on infusing talent at every level of the organisation right from top management to line managers. In today’s competitive market, identifying talent will ensure companies increase their performance and provide a competitive advantage.
    4. Developing great leaders within the organisation: It is a fact that many organisations possess a talented workforce but they lack the skills to identify and develop them. The organisation should possess a business strategy which gives responsibility to line managers to identify and develop future leaders. This is the integration of a business strategy with talent management practices which helps to achieve the organisation’s goals and objectives.
    5. Differentiation of talent: Performance management strategies are vital in differentiating people in the organisation. Often companies focus on assessing the talent of their employees with various performance strategies and differentiate top performers from low performers. They provide top performers with high-profile roles and give good remuneration and rewards for the value they create. It is always challenging for organisations to handle low performers but they can overcome this though relevant training and development programmes. This differentiation will enable organisations to raise the performance of the top performers, making them feel a vital part of the success of the business (Michaels et al., 2001).

    These imperatives may be simple but they fundamentally shift the way that employees in an organisation think about talent management.

    The five talent management imperatives form the business strategy of the organisation and aims to achieve the organisation’s long-term goals and objectives. However, the proper implementation of talent management practices and beliefs also depends on pre-conditions such as knowledge of information technology, managerial work experience, employee engagement techniques, and work motivation mechanisms (Perman, 2010). The lack of these conditions will create difficulties in identifying and developing the right talent in the organisation and this will in-turn result in the shortage of talent. With changing demographics and technology it is important for organisations to impart new knowledge to their employees as it will help them to realise future potential growth. Managers should be responsible for motivating and engaging employees to formulate strategies, thus stepping towards developing future leaders. Also, the shortage of talent may be due to a traditional SC approach where scope of future talent is limited. Finally, culture issues and lack of a proper HR department in an organisation will result in a shortage of talent. It is important to set these conditions primarily in order to implement talent management practices and beliefs creating organisational effectiveness and excellence (Lawyer, 2008).

    Performance management strategies in an organisation differentiate employees as either good performers or bad performers (Bacal, 1999). According to Deb, employees in an organisation, depending on their performance, can be broadly segmented into four types: super-keepers, keepers, solid citizens and misfits (Deb, 2005; p14). Both super-keepers and keepers exceed performance expectations and deliver operational excellence with their core competencies, whereas solid citizens work in accordance to their roles, meeting their set objectives and expectations. Misfits refer to under-performers who do not meet the employer’s expectations. It is often difficult to manage under-performers and this may result in roles being changed or weeding them out of the organisation altogether (Berger and Berger, 2004). Depending on the segmentation, the three main practices or beliefs of talent management are:

    1. Identifying, selecting and developing super-keepers within an organisation.
    2. Developing and integrating an efficient workforce (keepers) to the key positions in an organisation to provide effective functioning.
    3. Providing training and development to the employees who can contribute to organisational excellence (Deb, 2005).

    The major difficulty in implementation of talent management practices and beliefs as a business strategy lies in the identification of the talent. It is always a sophisticated process of identifying a talented workforce within an organisation using performance strategies. Also, organisations adopting talent management practices concentrate mainly on attracting new people rather than retaining their talented workforce. Due to lack of motivation and employee engagement mechanisms, managers are not considering the fact of developing their next sub-ordinates into future leaders at every level of the organisation, thus leading to reduction of talent pools (Lawyer, 2008). To overcome the above-mentioned barriers, it is important for organisations to focus on increasing their talent by integrating with business plans and processes, which will help them to manage their employee talent efficiently and effectively.  To achieve this, HR professionals should mainly concentrate on identifying and retaining talent, attracting new talent, developing leadership competencies, training and development activities, and performance management strategies (Deb, 2005).

    During the current economic crisis, many organisations have realised the importance of talent management practices. Companies were happy to cut expenses by eliminating the workforce. In fact, the main problem regarding talent management is its inability to determine risk and uncertainty with respect to change in the competitive business environment (Perman, 2010). The two major risks involved in talent management are the mismatch of people and skills and the cost of lost talent (Capelli, 2008). According to Capelli (2008), to overcome the risks associated with managing talent the following four principles are potential HR practices (integrated with the operations management processes) to be considered. This includes:

    1. A make or buy decision which emphasises the development of internal talent or recruiting external talent.
    2. Managing demand for talent by growth estimating models and cost-effective methods.
    3. The return on investment for the experienced talent and reduction of uncertainty in enhancing future talent by training and development.
    4. Developing talent pool within the organisation with core competencies (Capelli, 2008).

    Thus, Capelli’s four principles will help in overcoming the risks of talent management in association with HR performance management and succession planning processes.

    Conclusion
    In this competitive-based knowledge market, organisations possessing efficient and effective talent management practices will attain a competitive advantage compared to their competitors. Organisations have realised the fact that employees are the intangible assets providing sustainability and operational excellence. The integration of talent management with business plans and processes will help in building a talented workforce within the organisation at every level. It is worth emphasising integration of talent management practices with the business strategy, as this aims to deliver organisational goals and objectives. The essay outlines the fact that, without integration of talent management activities, it hard to obtain organisational excellence. The five talent management imperatives help in achieving high performance and enforce talent at every level of the organisation from top management to line managers. Finally, talent planning must be done in parallel with business planning, creating a rich integration of people and strategy which helps to deliver business strategy as a whole.

    Bibliography
    Ashton, C. and Morton, L. (2005) ‘Managing talent for competitive advantage: Taking a systematic approach to talent management’, Strategic HR review, 4, 5:28-31.

    Bacal, R. (1999) Performance management, USA: McGraw-Hill.

    Beardwell, J. and Claydon, T. (2007) Human Resource management: a contemporary approach, 5th edition. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

    Berger, L.A. and Berger, D.R. (2003) The Talent Management Handbook: Creating organizational excellence by identifying, developing, and promoting your best people, USA: McGraw-Hill.

    Capelli, P. (2008), Talent on demand: Managing talent in an age of uncertainty, USA: Harvard.

    Deb, T. (2005), A conceptual approach to Strategic Talent Management, New Delhi: Indus.

    Frank, F.D. and Taylor, C.R. (2004) ‘Talent Management: trends that will shape the future’, Human Resource Planning, 27, 1:33-41.

    Frank, F.D., Finnegan, R.P. and Taylor, C.R. (2004) ‘The race for talent: retaining and engaging workers in the 21st century’, Human Resource Planning, 27, 3:12-25.

    Lawyer, E. (2008) Talent: making people your competitive advantage, USA: Jossey-Bass.

    Michaels, Ed., Jones, H.H, and Axelrod, B. (2001) The war of talent, USA: Mc Kinsey & company.

    Perman, D. (2010), Lecture slides on Talent Management: Human Resource Management, week 3, Birmingham.

    Website links
    CIPD website. http://www.cipd.co.uk/NR/rdonlyres/6101AA06-F0C7-4073-98DA-758E91C718FC
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