Essay on Flooding
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Thousands of years ago before people built towns and planted crops, rivers cut deep canyons and molded the continents. Often these rivers overflowed their banks and flooded the surrounding areas, depositing mineral rich silt and soil in the surrounding plains and valleys. Because of the way floods enrich soil some of the first cities were built along rivers. The most important ones grew along the Indus River in Pakistan; the Nile in Egypt; the Yellow River in China; and the Tigris and Euphrates in the Middle East. These rivers floodplains are called the “cradles of civilization”. (Michael Burgan &Robin Doak) Even though floods happen everywhere, there are only four types of floods. River floods occur along rivers and usually…show more content…
These earthquakes cause tsunamis, which are huge waves. Tsunamis travel long distances across the ocean before reaching land where they flood the coasts, drown people, and smash buildings. (Dennis Fradin) Volcano eruptions can also cause tsunamis like in 1883 when Krakatoa erupted killing 37,000 people making it the worst tsunami in history. China is the largest and most populated country on the earth. It is also where the worst flood in history occurred. In 1887 the Yellow River toped its seventy-foot-tall levees and flooded eleven cities and hundreds of surrounding villages. This flood became the deadliest flood ever by killing at least 900,000 people. Thousands of square miles of farmland was covered in water that sometimes stood twenty feet deep over farm houses. It took two years for this much water to recede. With crops washed away there was little to eat; it is not known how many starved to death. In 1889 Johnstown Pennsylvania flooded. Fourteen miles away from Johnstown the Little Conemaugh River had been dammed to form Lake Conemaugh. The dam was owned by a country club and was known to be in poor condition. The members sailed and fished on the lake but did little to repair the dam. May 30, 1889 was Memorial Day and it rained hard. The river and lake rose quickly and the next day the water topped the dam and spilled over
A flood is an overflow of water on land which is usually dry.
Sometimes a water resource (river, lake or pond) gets flushed with too much water. Unusually heavy rain sometimes causes floods. When there is too much water, it may overflow beyond its normal limits. This water then spreads over land, flooding it. Extreme flooding can also be caused by a tsunami or a large storm that causes a storm surge. Floods that happen quickly are called flash floods.
The most deadly flooding was in 1931 in China and killed between 2,000,000 and 4,000,000 people.
During a flood, people try to move themselves and their most precious belongings to higher ground quickly. The process of leaving homes in search of a safe place is called evacuation.
Pollution of drinking water[change | change source]
During a flood there is plenty of water, but it is mostly polluted and not safe to drink. If people drink the dirty water, they may suffer from diseases such as typhoid and cholera. People can get ready to survive a flood by filling many containers with fresh and clean drinking water and storing other emergency supplies.
Causes of floods[change | change source]
Flooding is usually caused by a volume of water within a water body, such as a lake, overflowing. Sometimes a dam breaks, suddenly releasing a large amount of water. The result is that some of the water travels to land, and 'floods' the area. Many rivers are in a channel, between river banks. They flood when the strength of the river causes it to flow beyond the banks. This is more common at bends or meanders. Flood damage can be prevented by moving away from places that flood. However, people have long liked to have their homes and businesses alongside water because water is good for agriculture and transport and in other ways. Floods are also caused due to improper management of drains.
2010-11 Floods in Queensland[change | change source]
In 2010 and 2011, Queensland floods hurt Australia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by diminishing export revenues. Operations at about 40 coal mines were disrupted because of the floods. Crops were damaged and grazing lands were underwater.
References[change | change source]
Other page[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Floods.|
- ↑MSN Encarta Dictionary. Flood. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. Archived 2009-10-31.
- ↑Directive 2007/60/EC Chapter 1 Article2. eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved on 2012-06-12.
- ↑O'Connor, Jim E. and John E. Costa. 2004. The world's largest floods, past and present: their causes and magnitudes [Circular 1254]. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.