Philo, C. (Ed.) (2008) Theory and Methods: Critical Essays in Human Geography. Series: Contemporary foundations of space and place. Ashgate: Aldershot, UK, xiii-xliv. ISBN 9780754627098
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The International Encyclopedia of Human Geography provides an authoritative and comprehensive source of information on the discipline of human geography and its constituent, and related, subject areas. The encyclopedia includes over 1,000 detailed entries on philosophy and theory, key concepts, methods and practices, biographies of notable geographers, and geographical thought and praxis in different parts of the world. This groundbreaking project covers every field of human geography and the discipline's relationships to other disciplines, and is global in scope, involving an international set of contributors. Given its broad, inclusive scope and unique online accessibility, it is anticipated that the International Encyclopedia of Human Geography will become the major reference work for the discipline over the coming decades.
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Related essay: Geography
BRANCHES OF GEOGRAPHY:
- Physical Geography
- Human Geography
Physical geography is the field of geography which investigates the logical processes occurring at the earth exterior that provides the physical surroundings for individual actions (Strahler, 2002).
Human geography or more noble, anthropology handles with man in his geographic aspects. Again the difference is non-natural .Man more and more tames and taints environment. At the same time the biophysical surroundings circumstances human race in both organic and social aspects (Brock & Webl, 1968).
Cities across the globe are changing swiftly, governing by the forces of financial and cultural globalization and by the persuasion for ecological, economic and communal sustainability. City economies, sceneries, descriptions, habitat and communal geographies are altering as an outcome of these forces. “Urban Geography” studies the new geographic arrangements that are establishing within cities and the methods in which geographers have wanted to make perception of this urban conversion. Introducing both classic and modern strategies and perspectives of urban geography, it examines the globalization of the urbanization procedure and research in ways in which governments and institutions have responded to the ensuing challenges (Hall, 2006).
Housing usually refers to the social dilemma of verifying that members of community have a residence to live in, even if this is a home, or some further type of residence, lodge, or else shelter. Governments all over the globe have offices owed entirely for dealing with housing policies. Housing is the third mainly crucial individual need following food and clothing. As residence, housing is the prime setting for family unit and household life, a place of retreat and rest from the routines of employment and school, a confidential place. It is also weighed down with figurative worth, as an indicator of position and appearance of style. Housing is also treasured for its location, for the routes it provides to educational institutes, playgrounds, transportation, shopping and for the possibility to live in the district of one’s choice. Housing is also a chief asset for homeowners, the most extensive form of individual wealth. Housing is connected to the superior issues such as employment, transportation, physical condition and tutoring duties (Schwartz, 2010).
Housing was one time expressed as the wobbly pedestal beneath the welfare country unlike wellbeing and literacy, the condition has not seen its position as the core supplier. Certainly housing is basically dissimilar to wellbeing and education watch that represents a home rather than local then a short-term motion such as departing to school or approaching a hospital. Nonetheless, even though housing in few countries having not the rank of worldwide social service to be distributed chiefly according to requirement, the nation has intervened widely in the housing marketplace. Housing strategy is concerned with the processes involved in the state involvement in the housing market (Lund, 2011).
Social housing is a covering expression implying to lease accommodation which could be kept and supervised by the government, by non-profit corporations, or by a grouping of the two, typically with the plan of providing reasonably priced housing. Social housing can also be viewed as a possible cure to housing disparity. Accommodation marketplace should guide to major asset in well off and modest income neighborhoods, thus increasing housing quality. (Pollakowski, 2003)
Each one shares the liberty to a respectable level of living. Fundamental to the accomplishment of this level and then to the completion of individual life away from effortless survival is approaching to sufficient housing. Housing satisfies bodily requirements by delivering safety and refuge from weather conditions and atmosphere. It satisfies emotional requirements by giving a sense of individual space and privacy. Housing is a vital and essential human requirement; so far millions are trapped in the great effort to have a veil over their head in third world countries. Realizing the brutality of the dilemma and appreciating the truth that housing is not only a social requirement but a prolific zone of economy, the Government directed Ministry of Housing and Works to formulate a possible and successful housing policy and propose its suggestion that whether housing associations can fulfill their role as leading providers of social housing. (Birchall, 1993).
For the initial occasion in history, human beings are mainly metropolitan. Cities populate fewer than 2% of the globe land exterior, but dwelling nearly half of the individual inhabitant’s makes use of 75% of resources taken from planet. It aims to clarify the requirement and claim of housing in Pakistan and diverse housing strategies selected in their factional and financial condition of the state. The motive of failure of housing strategies are examined when housing strategies of the official region futile the unofficial region stepped in to give accommodation for the poor. It investigates unofficial accommodation policies and analysis of merging official and unofficial policies (Tirmirzi, 1992).
Ever since independence (1947), Pakistan’s metropolitan problems have not only accumulated but moreover have expanded in their extent and difficulty. Inhabitant’s growth and economic expansion, for instance, include precipitated the requirement for a wide variety of fresh metropolitan services and forced essential reformation of political and governmental institutions. Similarly, resource restrictions, technical modifications, increasing vision; dishonesty and possibility to have job abroad have exaggerated, and in turn have been affected by the metropolitan existence. The entire character of metropolitan troubles has altered and, equally, requirements, aims and purposes of metropolitan expansion; in total, the collective program of urbanization have been changed (Qadeer, 1996).
In Pakistan, speedy urbanization has developed into a trial for rising amount of people. Research show that need of funding from an official resource is mainly a supply-side problem. The majority of the accommodation finance is set through private resources. The official financial zone accommodate to only 1 to 2 percent of every housing dealings in the state, while the unofficial lending accommodate up to 10-12% of such dealings. Presently, the official monetary zone deliver accommodation hold up through two main origins that is the state supervised House Building Finance Company Limited and private commercial banks. The resources development manufacturing suffers from low community faith. Monetary fragility and the nonappearance of obvious, homogeneous and reasonable trade practices have exaggerated its reliability causing to the unwillingness of monetary institutions supplying whether progress and construction finance. (Ahmad&Hussain, 2012).
The urban inhabitants of Pakistan are rising at the speed of 4.8% a year. Between 1972 and 1981 the metropolitan populace of Pakistan has enlarged 25% of Pakistan’s overall population to 28% and it’s expected to be 40% by the year 2005. The metropolitan populace of Pakistan in 1992 was 32% of the entire population. The metropolitan population is concerted in the small amount of urban centers over 42% of this population lives in four main cities that is Karachi Lahore Faisalabad and Rawalpindi and Islamabad, almost partly of which is concerted in the main city of Karachi (Akhter, M Imtiaz 1990).
Shelter is a basic need according to the Maslow theory of needs .Shelter provides inhabitants with a secure living region, protected from the severe fundamentals of the atmosphere. Fulfilling the requirement for shelter allows persons to meet their unique slumber needs. Shelter provides a restricted atmosphere where the additional safety creates a barrier for any alarm or anxiety of the exterior world. As family’s effort to make ends meet in our present economy, the requirement for shelter is a serious subject for many Americans. Living salary to wages has become an unwholesome norm for many households with mortgage and rent remaining such a significant bill to pay (Maslow, 1954).