Essay In English Grammar



 

English Grammar for Essay Writing




English Grammar for Essay Writing :


Writing Techniques :

  • Persuasive : If you want to change a reader's attitude, use this technique. The author needs to do research and support his or her thoughts with evidence and examples.


  • Subjective : The writer depicts a list of pros and cons on the topic but doesn't show personal attitude.


  • First-person : The author discloses personal ideas and thoughts. This technique is not common for academic writing, but some essays still include it. It doesn't base on facts as usual.


  • Descriptive : To use this technique, one needs a detailed description to explain the story. More often than not, fiction writers use it.


  • Narrative : This writing style tells a story. The aim is to lead the reader through the text and show how everything happened. Note: there might be characters, but the story comes from the author.


  • Figures of speech : Numerous figures of speech exist, e.g., simile, metaphor, rhetorical question, alliteration, cliché, personification, paradox, etc. Using these techniques, you can provide a more accurate description.


    Methods of Essay Development :

    Narration : Every writing piece should have a story. This method explains how something happened.


    Description : It is similar to narration but has its peculiarities. For example, a well-written description makes a reader feel the same emotions the writer had.


    Process : It discloses how something develops step-by-step or shows how something works. Usually used for technical manuals.


    Comparison / Contrast : Shows the difference between two or more things. Usually, this method is based on two statements that have something in common, but it explains opposite views.


    Classification : If you need to divide something into types or categories, you should use this method. It consists of at least three components and shows key features of every single part.


    Cause / Effect : Describes the reasons/results of something happened. In your essay, you need to use causes or effects but not both at the same time.


    Argument / Persuasion : The author shows his or her attitude toward some fact or idea and explains it.


    Improving Skills for Proofreading :

    Read your text aloud. Such editing technique can help you correct more mistakes.


    Mark mistakes. Print your text and mark mistakes with a pen/pencil. Look through the text once again and try to figure out more.


    Avoid common mistakes. Learning a foreign language is hard. If you want to write like native speakers, you need to think like they do. So, explore more about ten common errors in ESL writing, and try to avoid these mistakes.


    Use a blank sheet. Write down mistakes and consult dictionaries/guides to correct them.


    Ask a teacher. If you want to get rid of mistakes, ask your teacher to proofread your text and explain them. As soon as you understand what is wrong, you'll start writing better.


    Be attentive. Proofreading is the process that demands time and efforts. Don't try to proofread the whole text at once, check it step by step (spelling, formatting, grammar, etc.)


    Stay positive. Positive thinking motivates work faster and better, so get inspiration and start proofreading.


    Self-editing :

    Take a pause. Don't try to edit your papers once you've done them. Wait a bit to brush up on grammar and stylistic rules.


    Cut your text. If you want to create a good piece, you need to write down everything you have researched. Then, while editing, cut paragraphs or ideas that seem unimportant for your audience.


    Stop using adverbs. If you want to make your writing stronger, you'd better replace adverbs with verbs. You can use online tools or do it yourself.


    Don't use passive voice. Although using passive voice is important sometimes, it weakens an academic writing. Enhance the readability with active voice usage.


    Proper formatting. While there are different styles of essays (MLA, APA, Harvard, or Chicago), you should know requirements for their formatting by heart.


    Hire sophisticated writers. Once you have finished your essay, ask a professional team to edit it. Compare both papers and write down notes. Hint: read essay writing services reviews reviews before placing your order.


    Tone and Vocabulary :

    Determine the purpose. Do research and determine the reason of your writing. It can help you select the best tone for your essay (critical, solemn, humorous, etc.)


    The right tone. The tone of writing shows author's attitude toward the problem and readers. Using appropriate emphasis and subordination is important, so you should create your writing tone (not personal).


    Learn new words. Look through a dictionary or a thesaurus to find out words you don't know. Write down several words every day and try to use them in daily communication. Expand your vocabulary.


    Use proper vocabulary. To create an academic essay, avoid using nondiscriminatory language. Try to use words that are the most relevant to the description you have in your head.


    Don't write in 1st person. Avoid using pronouns like 'I', 'me', 'my', 'mine', etc. Academic writing should be impersonal.


    Developing Strong English-Language Writing :

    A thesis statement. To create make your writing stronger, use this trick. Try to provoke the audience to the discussion.


    Pure grammar. To develop a good writing, you need to improve your grammar, so taking extra classes is a must.


    Learn from gurus. There are many writers who succeed. Read their books, tips, and pieces of advice for young writers to learn something new.


    Practice a lot. Even if you don't have a task to write an essay, do it. The more you practice, the better your writing is. Some writers claim that writing 1000 words per day can help you hone writing skills.


    Share experience. If you are a student, you might have group mates who face the same problem. Get together to share your experience and try to help each other.


    Use online tools. Living in the digital era, you should get the most out of it. Thus, you may improve your writing with online tools and apps.


    Clean your writing desk. A messy table might distract you from the writing process, reducing your productivity. Start working when your desk is clean and there is no extra stuff on it.




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    Commas and semi-colons. If the rules you learned about commas and semi-colons don't mean much to you, forget them and try this: Read one of your sentences aloud and see where you would naturally pause, where you would draw a breath. If it's a short pause, like that just was, you probably need a comma. If it's a longer pause, but not quite a full stop (for which you'd need a period), you probably need a semi-colon; remember that whatever follows a semi-colon must be able to stand on its own, as a full sentence, like this one.

    If you don't want your reader to pause, there shouldn't be a comma, there, because as, this demonstrates it's very difficult to figure, out, what you're saying when your punctuation, makes the sentence unreadable.

    Your sentences shouldn't leave your reader hyperventilating from the constant shallow breaths that over-punctuation requires. Nor should they be gasping for breath at the end of a long, unpunctuated sentence. (Consider yourself responsible for your readers' cardiovascular health.)

    Check your dashes and hyphens.When you're setting off a clause—this one is a good example—use the longer dash, called an m-dash. (You can indicate this dash with two hyphens—like this—if you don't have an m-dash function on your computer.) Be sure that the parts of the sentence that precede and follow the dashes would make sense even if you removed the dashes and the words they bracket. (In the example above, the sentence is readable with or without the clause inside the dashes.)

    You can also use the m-dash in place of a colon if you want to emphasize more dramatically the words that follow: "The mantlepiece was lined with photographs of people she loved—her mother, her grandmother, a favorite aunt." Or you can use it to add a surprising element into a sentence: "Her family's photographs were displayed on the mantlepiece; there were pictures of parents, grandparents, and siblings—and of Muffin, a Yorkshire terrier." Whereas the m-dash is used to set off parts of a sentence, hyphens are used to join words together: broken-hearted, two-thirds, sister-in-law.

    Always identify abbreviations before you use them, unless you feel reasonably confident that the average intelligent reader would be able to identify the acronym—like when the acronym is more commonly used than the words it stands for. (It would be odd to write out all the words for ESP, NATO, CEO, or AIDS.) Keep in mind the audience for the particular essay you're writing, though; readers who are specialists in a particular discipline may not want or need to have terms spelled out for them.

    Try to avoid split infinitives. This is no longer a hard and fast rule, and occasionally keeping an infinitive together in a sentence can introduce more awkwardness than the split, but usually the split is ungraceful. (Imagine: To be or to not be.)

    Make sure all your referents are clear. When you say "This theory" or "that point" or, simply, "it," is it clear which theory or point you're referring to? When you use "he" or "she" or "these critics," will your reader have to pause to figure out who all these people are?

    There's more to say about this. We often throw in a "this" when we're not entirely sure exactly what we want to draw our readers' attention to, especially when we're making a complex argument with many different elements. Sometimes vagueness in our language can be a symptom of muddled thinking. So ask yourself, what does this "this" refer to? What words would I replace it with? If you're not easily able to answer, you need to go back and work out your ideas in that section. (Readers will never understand what you mean when you don't know yourself. When you notice vague referents, or other apparently minor problems, take the opportunity to ask yourself if there might be any larger problem lurking beneath your surface error.)

    Never use "that" when you're referring to a person: "The first man that walked on the moon." "The author that she was referring to." These are people, not objects—it's insulting to call them "that." Use who or whom: "The first man who walked on the moon." "The author to whom she was referring." Are you using "that" because you're shaky on the who/whom thing? See below. (And while you're at it, consider whether you're twisting your sentences around to avoid any other grammatical points you're uncertain of. If so, take control! Liberate yourself! Learn the rules once and for all so you can write freely, instead of skulking around trying not to break the rules—or breaking them without realizing it. Try starting a text file in which you list the rules you tend to forget, and keep it open when you write. You can look rules up in any style manual, or come to the Writing Center.)

    Who is what doing what to whom? That's the question you need to ask yourself if you're uncertain which word to use. The one that does the action (the subject) is who. The one that gets something done to it (the object) is whom.

    Avoid passive voice. It tends to sap energy and power from your prose. It's usually better to say "Einstein's theory" than "the theory that was formulated by Einstein."

    Italics and underlines. You can use one or the other but never both. They mean the same thing—underlining used to be a copy-editing mark to tell printers to set certain words in italic type. Underlining italics meant the editor wanted the words taken out of italics. So underlining your already- italicized phrase is, in effect, like using a double negative.

    Be sure all of your sentences have parallel construction.This sentence doesn't have it: "Re- reading my first draft, I notice it's trite, repetitive, and with no thesis." This sentence does: "Re- reading my first draft, I notice that it's trite and repetitive, and that it has no thesis." Or you could say: "Re-reading my first draft, I notice it's trite, repetitive, and lacking in a thesis." In the two examples with parallel construction, you could take out any of the words in the list and still have the sentence make sense.

    Copyright 1999, Kim Cooper, for the Writing Center at Harvard University

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