Data Analysis And Findings Dissertation Proposal Example

You are now ready to plan and compose the second piece of your proposal, the methodologysection.  In it you will describe what you plan to accomplish, why you want to do it and how you are going to do it. This process is very  important; to a reviewer, your research investigation is only as a good as your proposal methodology. Generally, a research proposal should contain all thekey elements involved in theresearch process and include sufficient information for the readers to evaluate the proposed study.  An ill-conceived proposal dooms the project, even if it somehow is approved, because your methods are not carefully thought out in advance.

The methodology section should describe how each specific objective will be achieved, with enough detail to enable an independent and informed assessment of the proposal. This section should include:

  • Restatement of research tasks:hypothesis or research questions;
  • Studypopulationandsampling: description of study areas, populations and the procedures for their selection;
  • Data collection: description of the tools and methods used to collect information, and identification of variables;
  • Data analysis: description of data processing and analyzing procedures;
  • Laboratory procedures: descriptions of standardized procedures and protocols and new or unique procedures; and
  • The specific tools that will be used to study each research objective.

First, review the two types of research, qualitative and quantitative, in order to make a decision about your own methodology's procedures pathway. 

In a series of steps in aplanning guide, you will outline yourmethodologysection and craft yourproposal

Deciding My Own Approach

Start planning and writing by clicking on each of the elements in research proposal's methodology section

What type of overall study design is best for my investigation and research?

There are two types of information gathering—qualitativeandquantitative. Both designs, quantitative and qualitative, are said to be systematic, meaning that they have a system or follow a process. Each type of design, however has different approaches to methods of reasoning, step-by-stepprocedures, and researchtoolsandstrategies. Although deciding that an investigation is qualitative or quantitative directs the researcher toward a certain path, depending on what research questions still need to be answered as the investigation unfolds a combination of approaches can be used in the specific research tools used.

Now you will determineoverall project design; that decision will help you to frame out your basic methodology and determine whether you will need to use inductive or deductive reasoning in making your conclusion. 

Complete Crafting a Research Proposal:  II. Approach to Research Design in order to decide which approach will best suit your research.  To answer some of the questions there, you may need to review your Reflection Journal and the material introduced earlier about methodology located on this web site.

When you are done, select the approach that you think will work best for your research and follow the pathway for your particular approach

Design My Project

Now that you know which design best suits your investigation, you will need to follow a specific pathway for the following research proposal elements in order to follow the specific reasoning and concerns of your approach.  You will also need to download and save the planning guide for your approach to methodology to your computer.

Crafting the Proposal:  III. The Methodology (Qualitative)

Crafting the Proposal:  III. The Methodology (Quantitative)

Different Pathways for Different Research Design Approaches

After you have downloaded and saved the file,  you will need to complete Step 1 : Designing Research Methodology.  Use the links below to help you to make decisions as you complete your planning guide.

Qualitative Approach Pathway

Qualitative Variables

Role of the Researcher in Qualitative Design

Researchers usually prefer fairly lengthy and deep involvement in the natural setting. Social life is complex in its range and variability, and operates at different levels. It has many layers of meaning and the researcher has to lift veils to discover the innermost meanings. In order to gain access to deeper levels, the researcher needs to develop a certain rapport with the subjects of the study, and to win their trust.

There are some key ideas to consider as you plan for your role in your research design.

Quantitative Approach Pathway

Quantitative Variables

Role of the Researcher in Quantitative Design

The quantitative researcher is detached and objective.  Explain whether you will be an unobtrusive observer, a participant observer, or a collaborator.  Evaluate how your own bias may affect the methodology, outcomes, and analysis of findings.

Many times this element of the research proposal will be affected by ethics.  In addition, this section is often interwoven in a narrative design explanation with other elements of the proposal.  Review sample proposals to see how other researchers with similar designs to yours have explained their roles in the research investigation.

Complete this section on your planning guide.

When you have completed  Step 1 on your planning sheet, move on to Step 2: Refining My Quantitative(or Qualitative) Investigation with Specific Methods, Tools, and Procedures.

You will need to make decisions in Step 2 for the following topics.  Use the links below, your reflection journal, and the Elements of the Proposal section of the web site to assist you as you complete this portion of your planning guide.

After you have planned the elements above, there are a few more things to decide and plan.  Use the list below and your planning guide to help youcomplete the rest of yourresearch proposal

Other Elements in the Research Methodology

  • Timeline
  • Resources and Materials
  • Limitations and Delimitations
  • Final Product In the section, the researcher discusses the possible outcomes of the study, its relation to theory and literature, and its potential impact or application.  A description of the possible forms of the final product, e.g., publishable manuscript, conference paper, invention, model, computer software, exhibit, performance, etc., should be outlined.  Be specific about how you intend to share your results or project with others.  Although all of these ideas may change in light of the research process or the final results, it is always good to plan with the end product in mind.

    This section may also include an interpretation and explanation of results as related to your question; a discussion on or suggestions for further work that may help address the problem you are trying to solve; an analysis of the expected impact of the findings and product on the audience; or a discussion on any problems that could hinder your creative work.

    Ask yourself the following questions:

    • In what form will your findings be presented?
    • How will you be disseminating your findings?
    • To whom will you be disseminating your findings?
    • How will you ensure anonymity in any publications?
    • Will you need to create an abstract of your overall investigation?

    Before you write this section, you may want to go back to the sample research proposals to see how other researchers explained their ideas.  You may also want to go back to your Reflection Journal to see what your own thoughts were as you reviewed the sample proposals.  Considering your original proposal statement, where you decided if your research was going to be basic, applied, or practical, may also give you ideas about your final product.
  • References Keep a running list of all references as you work through the proposal.  You will need to have this list to avoid plagiarism and chances are you will need to go back to certain references throughout the entire research experience.  This includes all textbooks, reference books, journal articles, Internet sources, etc. 

    See the references section from your Literature Review for a comprehensive guide to completing the reference section of your proposal.  You do not need to duplicate the efforts of your Literature Review, but PLEASE remember to add any new references that you utilized for your methodology, data collection tools, etc.  Spend some time reviewing the references to ensure that they are complete and accurate - names of all the authors, correct date, full and accurate title, complete publishing information (city of publication, publishing company for books, full journal title, volume and number and pages for journal articles). Use the appropriate citation forms for your field of study. 

    Complete this section using the directions on  your proposal planning guide.
  • Appendices Adding a few appendices  to the end of your proposal allows you to show how thoroughly you have prepared your research project without obliging the reader to wade through all the details. The purpose of an appendix is to display documents which are relevant to main text, but whose presence in the text would disturb rather than enhance the flow of the argument or writing.  Results of the literature search, pilot data, data collection forms, patient information sheets, and consent forms can all be added as appendices to include documents, pilot study material, questions for interviews, survey instruments, explanatory statement to participants,etc.

    Some likely parts to incorporate in the appendices are:

    • Distribution Plan - A part of the proposal which is the plan for distributing of information about the project to the audience. It can also include financial statements for the funding agencies which want to see financial standing of the project. This section may include radio broadcasts, training programs, workshops, printed handouts, newsletters, presentations, etc.
    • Cooperating Agency Information – If references of different cooperating agencies are given, then try to give some detail about these agencies in appendices like name and address, services or product, names of important personals, etc.
    • Evaluation Tools – It is good to include the copy of evaluation tools planed to use which are used in information gathering like questionnaires, survey, interview, etc.

Appendices have a format:

    1. Pagination: Each Appendix begins on a separate page.
    2. Heading:If there is only one appendix, "Appendix" is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. If there is more than one appendix, use Appendix A (or B or C, etc.). Double-space and type the appendix title (centered in uppercase and lowercase letters).
    3. Format: Indent the first line 5-7 spaces.
    4. Example of APA-formatted Appendix:

Most of the items that you include in your appendix will only need a Copy-Paste to be added to your proposal.  It could also be possible that they would need to be converted into a graphic or a .PDF file if they are web-based. 

Complete this section following the directions on your proposal planning guide.

After you make your decisions for above, you will have completed Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 of your planning guide.  You now will need to write your methodology draft.  Use this sample methodology section as an example for explanations, language, and phrasing for this part of your proposal. 

Sample Description of Methodology

Data Gathering Plans – The two instruments and a simple instruction sheet that also asks subjects their age and gender, will be delivered to an administrator in each setting who has agreed to distribute and collect the completed instruments. Prior to their distribution an introductory letter from both the researcher and the respective administrators will be placed in each selected subject’s mailbox or mail slot asking for their cooperation. The letters will describe the research and its importance and the support of the administrator. They also will note that a $5 coupon toward any groceries at the local Wegman’s Grocery (donated by the store’s public relations office) will be available to each person completing the two instruments and signing a letter of informed consent related to the research. Finally, they will provide a telephone number for anyone with questions or who may need assistance in completing the instruments. This procedure will be pilot-tested with at least 10 volunteers from the Fayetteville Senior center to refine the data gathering plans.

Once the pilot-testing procedures have been completed, any required changes in the administration plans will be carried out. Then the administrators will be authorized to distribute the forms. Any person who has phoned needing clarification will be provided further explanation. Anyone who phones in a need for assistance in completing the forms will receive support in the form of one the location’s administrative assistants reading the forms and recording the answers. Each assistant so involved will be provided training by the researcher on how to read and record the answers in an unbiased manner.

One week after this initial delivery, a follow-up phone call will be made to either thank those who completed the forms or to remind those who have not yet completed their forms. The grocery coupons will be mailed to all who have completed the forms with a letter of thanks. If fewer than 95 people from each of the two settings complete the forms, then the random sampling and distribution will continue until at least that number of completed forms from each setting has been received. It is anticipated that all data collection efforts will be completed within one month.

Your Reflection Log and the sample proposals you studied earlier also should be excellent resources.

Through the steps  in Crafting the Proposal:  III. The Methodology, you have planned, and maybe even completed, the first draft of your research proposal's methodology section. 

When you have completed your draft, you will need to combine all three pieces of your proposal, your introduction, your literature review, and your methodology.  Use Step 6 on your planning guide to assist you.  

In your research proposal, you will also discuss how you will conduct an analysis of your data.  By the time you get to the analysis of your data, most of the really difficult work has been done. It's much more difficult to define the research problem, develop and implement a sampling plan, develop a design structure, and determine your measures. If you have done this work well, the analysis of the data is usually a fairly straightforward affair.

Before you look at the various ways of analyzing and discussing data, you need to review the differences betweenqualitative research/quantitative researchandqualitative data/quantitative data.

Why do I have to analyze data?

The purpose of analyzing data is to obtain usable and useful information. The analysis, regardless of whether the data is qualitative or quantitative, may:

  • describe and summarize the data.
  • identify relationships between variables.
  • compare variables. 
  • identify the difference between variables.
  • forecast outcomes. 

Earlier, you distinguished between qualitative and quantitativeresearch. It is highly unlikely that your research will be purely one or the other – it will probably be amixtureof the two approaches.

For example, you may have decided to ethnographic research, which is qualitative. In your first step, you may have taken a small sample (normally associated with qualitative research) but then conducted a structured interview or used a questionnaire (normally associated with quantitative research) to determine people’s attitudes to a particular phenomenon (qualitative research). It is therefore likely that your mixed approach will take a qualitative approach some of the time, and a quantitative approach at others depending on the needs of your investigation.

A source of confusion for many people is the belief that qualitative research generates just qualitative data (text, words, opinions, etc) and that quantitative research generates just quantitative data (numbers). Sometimes this is the case, but both types of data can be generated by each approach. For instance, a questionnaire (quantitative research) will often gather factual information like age, salary, length of service (quantitative data) – but may also collect opinions and attitudes (qualitative data).

When it comes todata analysis, some believe that statistical techniques are only applicable for quantitative data. This is not so. There are many statistical techniques that can be applied toqualitativedata, such as ratings scales, that has been generated by aquantitative research approach.  Even if a qualitative study uses no quantitative data, there are many ways of analyzing qualitative data. For example, having conducted an interview, transcription and organization of data are the first stages of analysis. This would then be continued by systematically analyzing the transcripts, grouping together comments on similar themes and attempting to interpret them, and draw conclusions.

1. Manchester Metropolitan University (Department of Information and Communications) and Learn Higher offer a clear introductory tutorial to qualitative and quantitative data analysis through their Analyze This!!! site. In additional to teaching about strategies for both approaches to data analysis, the tutorial is peppered with short quizzes to test your understanding. The site also links out to further reading. 

Complete this tutorial and use your new knowledge to complete yourplanning guide foryour data analysis.

There are many computer- and technology-related resources available to assist you in your data analysis.

Online General Resources

Quantitative Data Analysis Resources

  • The Rice Virtual Lab in Statistics also houses an online textbook, Hyperstat. This textbook introduces univariate and bivariate analysis, probability, distribution and hypothesis testing. The site also includes a really useful section of case studies, which use real life examples to illustrate various statistical tests.
  • Not sure which statistical test to use with your data? The University of the West of England has a really helpful tree diagram to help you decide which is the best one for you. The diagram is housed within another good introduction to data analysis.
  • Free Statistical Analysis and Data Management software

Common Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis Packages

There are many computer packages that can support your qualitative data analysis. The following site offers a comprehensive overview of many of them: Online QDA

ATLAS.ti

Another package that allows you analyze textual, graphical, audio and video data. It also has the functionality to produce tag clouds to represent the codes you have created. No free demo, but there is a student price.

MAXQDA

This has add-ons which allow you to analyze vocabulary and carry out content analysis. There is a visual MAPS add-on which produces visual representations of your data. There is a free demo.

The Ethnograph

This was one of the first packages for qualitative data analysis. It allows you to create code trees and search your data easily. There is a free demo.

Transana, HyperRESEARCH and HyperTRANSCRIBE,  and N-Vivo are other products.

2.  When you are done, you will also need to address concerns about the reliability and validity of your possible results.  Use these questions and explanations for ideas as you complete your planning guide for this section.

Some common worries amongst researchers are:

  • Will the research I’ve done stand up to outside scrutiny?
  • Will anyone believe my findings? 

These questions are addressed by researchers by assessing the data collection method (the research instrument) for itsreliabilityand itsvalidity.

Reliability

Reliability is the extent to which the same finding will be obtained if the research was repeated at another time by another researcher. If the same finding can be obtained again, the instrument is consistentor reliable.

Validity

Validity is understood best by the question: ‘Are we measuring what we think we are measuring?’ This is very difficult to assess. The following questions are typical of those asked to assess validity issues:

  • Has the researcher gained full access to the knowledge and meanings of data?
  • Would experienced researchers use the same questions or methods?

No procedure is perfectly reliable, but if a data collection procedure is unreliable then it is also invalid.  The other problem is that even if it is reliable, then that does not mean it is necessarily valid.

Triangulation

Triangulation is crosschecking of data using multiple data sources or using two or more methods of data collection. There are different types of triangulation, including:

  • time triangulation– longitudinal studies
  • methodological triangulation – same method at different times or different methods on same object of study
  • investigator triangulation– uses more than one researcher.

Sampling error

Sampling error is a measure of the difference between the sample results and the population parameters being measured. It can never be eliminated, but if random sampling is used, sampling error occurs by chance but is reduced as the sample size increases. When non-random sampling is used this is not the case.

Basic questions we need to ask to assess a sample are:

  • Is the sample random and representative of the population?
  • Is the sample small or large? 

Non-sampling error

All errors, other than sampling errors, are non-sampling errors and can never be eliminated. The many sources of non-sampling errors include the following:

  • Researcher error– unclear definitions; reliability and validity issues; data analysis problems, for example, missing data.
  • Interviewer error– general approach; personal interview techniques; recording responses.
  • Respondent error– inability to answer; unwilling; cheating; not available; low response rate.

This section was discussed in Elements of the Proposal, where there are many online resources, and you have reflective journal entries that will support you as you develop your ideas for reliability and validity in your planning guide.  In addition this writing tutorial specifically addresses the ways in which this can be explained in your research proposal.

Return to Writing the Proposal - Different Pathways

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