UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Photo by: thierry burot
LOCATION AND SIZE.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) controls the southeastern portion of the Arabian peninsula south of the states of Bahrain and Qatar. The federation covers 82,820 square kilometers (31,976 square miles) and is bordered on the north by the Persian Gulf and Iran, on the east by Oman, and on the south and west by Saudi Arabia. The UAE separates Oman from the Musandam peninsula and extends 90 kilometers (145 miles) along the Gulf of Oman, an area known as the al-Batinah coast. The UAE is slightly smaller than the U.S. state of Maine.
The population of the UAE is between 2.8 million and 3 million. About 85 percent of them live in cities that straddle the country's Arabian/Persian Gulf coastline. UAE cities tend to be ethnically heterogeneous and male, while there are more women and UAE nationals in rural areas. The 3 largest emirates—Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah—collectively govern 84.3 percent of the population. Close to 80 percent of the population is comprised of expatriate nationals and nearly 63 percent of the population is male. Nearly 96 percent of Emiratis are Muslim. South Asians, mainly Indians and Pakistanis, make up 50 percent of the population. The next 3 largest expatriate ethnic groups are Iranians (2.5 percent), Arabs from other parts of the Middle East (13 percent), and Westerners (1 percent).
By all accounts the population is growing very rapidly. According to the UAE's Central Bank, the UAE's population grew by 5.5 percent between 1993 and 1997. The UAE government expects population to double by 2010, whereas Dubai projects the emirate's population to double by 2005. The World Bank projected a 37 percent increase in population, but with 30 percent of the current population under the age of 15, this still represents an important demographic shift. By contrast, the United Nations anticipates the UAE's population to double by 2029.
The principal causes of this rapid population growth are the federation's booming economy and the govern-ment's encouragement of UAE nationals to have large families. The UAE government provides substantial financial incentives for UAE nationals to marry each other and to raise large families. The UAE government hopes that this would help to balance the federation's population, which is overwhelmingly composed of expatriates.
Oil is the foundation of the UAE's economy and will be so for many years to come. Current estimates suggest that the federation has more than a century of oil supplies. Oil production represented more than a third of GDP in 1999 and virtually all of the government's revenues. These revenues are also important to government spending, on which most non-oil UAE industries are dependent. Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, and Ras al-Khaimah all have some level of oil production, but Abu Dhabi dominates both the UAE's production and reserves. According to the U.S. Energy Information Agency (EIA), Abu Dhabi has crude reserves of 92.2 billion barrels, or slightly less than 10 percent of the world's total, and 92 percent of UAE reserves. The EIA also reported that total UAE oil production for 2000 reached 2.29 million barrels of oil a day but that Abu Dhabi's recent investments could push production closer to 2.7 to 2.9 million barrels. Generally Abu Dhabi has reduced its production to ensure that the UAE stays within OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) production guidelines.
The UAE is also blessed with the fourth largest gas reserves in the world: 212 trillion cubic feet, which is about 4 percent of the world's total. These reserves are expected to last for about 150 to 170 years. Abu Dhabi controls 92 percent of the UAE total, while Dubai, Sharjah, and Ras al-Khaimah control the rest. The UAE has soaring domestic demands for gas production. Abu Dhabi has initiated a multi-billion-dollar program to address this need. The most ambitious part is the Dolphin gas project, which proposes to ship gas from Qatar's North Field to the UAE (principally Abu Dhabi and Dubai), Oman, and eventually to Pakistan. Significant funding is still needed for the project, but the Economist expected managers will be able to find the necessary funding because the project involves 4 national governments.
Finally, there is copper in Fujairah and Ras al-Khaimah, talc in Fujairah, and manganese in all of the northern emirates. It not clear whether there is enough of any of these minerals to justify commercial mining.
The Economist estimated that the UAE has invested $6.8 billion in industrial development over the last 30 years, spurring the creation of 1,000 factories with more than US$20 billion in direct investment. The dominant industries have been chemicals and plastics (closely connected to UAE crude oil supplies) along with aluminum. Dubai Aluminum is a leading supplier of aluminum to the GCC states and accounts for 60 percent of Dubai's non-oil exports. The UAE government also has made significant investments in petrochemicals and other "downstream" hydrocarbon industries— "downstream" meaning those that involve refining petroleum. In addition, the government is encouraging local-foreign ventures to invest in manufacturing and offering low-interest loans through the Emirates Industrial Bank to private financiers willing to invest in manufacturing in the UAE. Fifty percent of all manufacturing centers are in Abu Dhabi, while Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah collectively controlled 93 percent of the UAE's industrial production in 1998.
A key source of local-foreign investment in manufacturing is the "offsets" program, launched in 1991. It requires arms manufacturing and military aerospace firms to invest 60 percent of the value of their sales to the UAE in non-oil UAE industries. It is designed to take advantage of the current glut on the world arms market and to escape the traditional dilemma of choosing between spending on guns or food. By law, a UAE citizen must retain 51 percent of the capital in the partnership. Virtually all offset projects must be completed within 7 years. If the obligations are not met by the target dates, the company is penalized 8.5 percent of the unfulfilled portion of the obligation.
FREE TRADE ZONES.
Another key contributor to UAE industry has been free trade zones. The most important free trade zone is Jebel Ali Free Trade Zone in Dubai. Jebel Ali in 1999 boasted 1,600 corporations and nearly $2.5 billion in investments. The zone's principal advantage was that it allowed companies investing more than Dh1 million (US$272,479) to be 100 percent foreign owned. It also boasts some of the best transportation facilities in the world and has become a regional transportation center, servicing the U.S. Navy, among others. Since the founding of Jebel Ali in 1985, the other UAE emirates established their own free trade zones, which have sought to replicate Jebel Ali's success.
TOURISM AND RETAIL.
The UAE has a thriving tourist industry centered in Dubai, which has 70 percent of the country's hotels. Dubai features horse races, desert safaris, golf courses, and a number of five-and four-star hotels. The emirate also has shopping festivals, such as the Dubai Shopping Festival, where goods are heavily discounted. The purpose of these festivals is to attract visitors. According to the festivals' organizers, nearly 2.5 million people vacationed in the emirates in 2000: they came mostly from Britain, from surrounding states, and from the states of the former Soviet Union. Fujairah, which faces the Indian Ocean, has witnessed a considerable upsurge in vacationers in recent years. Retail has generally benefited from this upsurge except when a strong yen increases the price of imported Japanese consumer goods .
CONSTRUCTION AND REAL ESTATE.
For much of the 1980s and 1990s, the UAE underwent a building boom with new office buildings rising daily in the UAE's major cities, particularly Dubai and Abu Dhabi. In recent years, there have been reports that the boom is slowing, that UAE developers are taking a more reasoned/scientific approach to building, and that there is even a sign of a glut of office space in Dubai. Still, Dubai continues to build new hotels. The Saadiyat project in Abu Dhabi promises 28,000 new homes, a bridge valued at US$220 million, and a new trade center valued at US$95 million.
Finally, a rapidly emerging sector in the UAE economy is re-export, whose value, according to UAE government statistics, almost doubled between 1990 and 1998. At that time, foreign trade hit US$10.6 billion. The center of UAE re-export trade is Dubai, which accounted for 40 percent of the federation's re-export trade in the late 1990s. Among the most important markets for Dubai's re-export trade are Iran and the southern countries of the former Soviet Union. Reportedly Dubai also served as an entryway for smugglers attempting to circumvent U.S. sanctions against Iran imposed in the mid-1990s.
United Arab Emirates has no territories or colonies.
Cordesman, Anthony. Bahrain, Oman, Qatar and the UAE: Challenges of Security. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1997.
El-Din, Amin Badr. "The UAE Offsets Program." Middle East Policy. Vol. 5, January 1997.
Economist Intelligence Unit. United Arab Emirates Country Profile. London: Economist Intelligence Unit, 1998.
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Emirate of Dubai Official Trade Statistics and Commerce Statistics. 2000.
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Rugh, William. "The Foreign Policy of the United Arab Emirates." Middle East Journal. Vol. 50, Winter 1996.
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Sick, Gary. "The Coming Crisis in the Persian Gulf." The Persian Gulf at the Millennium: Essays on Politics, Economics, Security, and Religion, edited by Gary G. Sick and Lawrence G. Potter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.
al-Shayeji, Abdullah. "Gulf Views of U.S. Foreign Policy in the Region." Middle East Policy. Vol. 5, September 1997.
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—. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World Population Projections to 2150. New York: United Nations, 1998.
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U.S. Department of Commerce. 1997 Country Commercial Guide: United Arab Emirates. Washington, DC: United States Printing Office, 1997.
U.S. Department of State. "1998 Report on Economic Policies and Trade Practices: United Arab Emirates." Tradeport. <http://www.tradeport.org/ts/countries/uae/ecopol.html> . Accessed January 30, 2001.
—. "1999 Report on the United Arab Emirates Human Rights Practices." <http://www.state.gov/www/global/human_rights/1999_hrp_report/uae.html> . Accessed January 31, 2001.
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U.S. Library of Congress. United Arab Emirates: A Country Study. <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/aetoc.html> . Accessed January 1, 2001.
World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.
World Bank. World Population Projections 1994-1995. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
Emirian dirham (Dh). One Emirian dirham equals 100 fils. There are coins of 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 fils and 1 and 5 dirhams. Paper notes include 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 dirhams.
Crude oil, natural gas, re-exports, dried fish, and dates.
Machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, and food.
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT:
US$54 billion (2000 est.).
BALANCE OF TRADE:
Exports: US$46 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.). Imports: US$34 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.).
Overview of economy
Politics, government, and taxation
Infrastructure, power, and communications
Poverty and wealth
Country history and economic development
Said, Edward Out of Place (Knopf, 1999). the book tells the story of Said’s upbringing in Palestine, Egypt, Lebanon and the United States, and the saga of his family’s experiences, most significantly in the 1947-48 period. Said’s book is not only a superb memoir and a fascinating personal and family portrait, it is also an invaluable contribution to the narrative of the Palestinian experience and the development of an Arab-American consciousness.
Abinader, Elmaz. Children of the Roojme: A Family’s Journey (New York: W.W. Norton, 1991). A loving look back to the immigrant experience in 1916-20 and the family’s life in Lebanon and the U.S. The story of three generations based on diaries, letters, interviews.
Abourezk, James. Advise & Dissent: Memoirs of South Dakota and the U.S. Senate (Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 1989). From his early years as the son of a Lebanese immigrant to his Senate career; a champion of American Indian self-determination, supporter of a Palestinian state, critic of PAC money, defender of small farmers, and founder of ADC.
Abraham, Sameer and Abraham, Nabeel, eds. The Arab World and Arab-Americans: Understanding a Neglected Minority (Detroit: Wayne State University, Center for Urban Studies, 1981). Articles include a survey of the peoples and cultures of the Arab world, Arab American identity, stereotyping and education, multicultural and bilingual education, and approaches to teaching about the Arab world.
Abraham, Sameer and Abraham, Nabeel, eds. Arabs in the New World: Studies on Arab-American Communities (Detroit: Wayne State University, Center for Urban Studies, 1983). Articles address immigration patterns, residential settlements, occupations, religious institutions, assimilation and acculturation of Arab Christians and Muslims. Case studies cover Arab American communities in Detroit — Yemenis, Iraqi Chaldeans, Lebanese Maronites and working class Muslims in the Southend neighborhood. Has useful bibliographies.
Abu-Laban, Baha, and Zeadey, Faith T., eds. Arabs in America: Myths and Realities (Wilmette, IL: Medina University Press International, 1975). Articles on the Arab image in the mass media, the institutional bases of stereotypes (Orientalism, textbooks, church school curricula, fundamentalist Christianity), the question of Palestine, Arab American auto workers in Detroit and Yemeni migrant workers in California.
Abu-Laban, Baha & Suleiman, Michael W., eds. Arab-Americans: Continuity and Change. Arab Studies Quarterly 11, nos. 2-3 (Spring, Summer 1989). 20 multidisciplinary essays on Arab American identity, art and politics.
Adeed, Patty & Smith, G. Pritchy. “Arab Americans: Concepts and Materials” in Teaching Strategies for Ethnic Studies (6th edition), James A. Banks, ed. (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997). 22-page article surveys three waves of immigration, discusses Arab culture and values.
Ashabranner, Brent, An Ancient Heritage: The Arab American Minority (NY: HarperCollins, 1991). For teens. Based on personal interviews with Arab Americans, many of them ADC members. Covers Arab American history, culture, values. Abundant photographs.
Aswad, Barbara C., ed. Arabic Speaking Communities in American Cities (New York: Center for Migration Studies and the Association of Arab-American University Graduates, 1974). Articles cover Arab immigrants in Edmonton, Alberta, and Dearborn, Michigan; immigrants from Ramallah; Maronites in Detroit; Muslims in the Southend neighborhood of Dearborn; "Syrian" Americans; and bilingual children. Bibliographies.
Aswad, Barbara C. and Bilge, Barbara, eds. Family and Gender Among American Muslims: Issues Facing Middle Eastern Immigrants and Their Children. (Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1997). Arab, Turkish, Iranian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi immigrants. Social and historical analysis of the Muslim immigration.
Christison, Kathleen. “The American Experience: Palestinians in the U.S.” Journal of Palestine Studies 18, no. 4 (Summer 1989).
Dwairy, Marwan. Cross-Cultural Counseling: The Arab-Palestinian Case (New York: The Haworth Press, 1998). Outlines Arab-Palestinian culture, psychological aspects, socialization personality, cultural attitudes toward mental health, and crosscultural issues in therapy.
Gibran, Jean and Gibran, Khalil. Khalil Gibran: His Life and World.
Haddad, Yvonne Y. “A Century of Islam in America” (Washington, DC: Middle East Institute, 1986). 13-page survey of native born and immigrant Muslims in the U.S., including 2-page bibliography.
The Muslims of America. (1991).
Haddad, Yvonne and Smith, Jane. Muslim Communities in North America (Albany: State University of New York, 1994). 22 articles on religion, immigrant communities, and the sociology of Islam and Muslims. Covers Lebanese, Yemenis, Iranians, Turks, and African Americans in 13 cities; topics include the role of women, minority status, identity maintenance.
Hagopian, Elaine C. and Paden, Ann, eds. The Arab-Americans: Studies in Assimilation (Wilmette, IL: Medina University Press International, 1969). Includes discussion of the absence of political organization among earlier generations of Arab Americans and the greater politicization among more recent generations, who see no contradiction between American identity and serious concern for their families’ homelands.
Hooglund, Eric J., ed., Crossing the Waters: Arabic-Speaking Immigrants to the United States Before 1940 (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1987). Essays provide an overview of Arab immigration, Arab community studies in Birmingham, Boston, El Paso and Maine, and biographical studies on Philip Hitti, Khalil Gibran and Gregory Orfalea.
Joseph, Larry. “Tale of Two Waves: The Arab-Americans of Brooklyn.” (Brooklyn Bridge, July 1997).
Kadi, Joanna, ed. Food for Our Grandmothers: Writings by Arab-American and Arab-Canadian Feminists (Boston: South End Press, 1994). Essays and poems by 40 women, exploring issues of family, ethnicity, culture, politics and individuality. Explores both the joy and the pain in the Arab heritage; being Arab in America, being American in the Arab world. The effect of Middle East political conflicts on personal relationships in the U.S. The personal experience of discrimination. Challenges stereotyped perceptions of the relationships of Arab and Arab American women and men. Many of the essays are autobiographical, insightful, and eloquent.
Kayal, Philip M. An Arab-American Bibliographic Guide (Association of Arab-American University Graduates, 1985). 40 page listing of books, articles, periodicals, reference works, and unpublished materials.
McCarus, Ernest, ed. The Development of Arab-American Identity (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1994). Essays on dilemmas of ethnic groups, early immigrants, Arab Christian and Muslim communities, issues of identity and the Arab image, and anti-Arab racism.
Majaj, Lisa Suhair. “Two Worlds: Arab-American Writing” Forkroads (Spring, 1996). Recounts the personal meaning of her discovery of Arab American literature and how it enhanced her own sense of ethnic identity. The 17-page discussion ranges from early 20th century writers to the expanding body of self-aware Arab American literature today.
Marston, Elsa. The Lebanese in America (Lerner Books, 1987). For young people.
Mehde, Beverlee T., ed. The Arabs in America, 1492-1977: A Chronology and Fact Book (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1978). Discusses prominent Arab Americans and notable events, religious and social organizations. Has relevant documents.
Naff, Alixa. The Arab-Americans New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. Children’s book for grades 5-8, 110 pps. Early immigrants from Syria-Lebanon beginning in the 19th century, the process of assimilation, post-WWII immigrants from across the Arab world, the current resurgence of ethnic awareness.
Naff, Alixa. Becoming American: The Early Arab Immigrant Experience (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1985). Early immigrants before World War I; thoroughly explores their experience as cross-country peddlers, their business and social ties and their rapid assimilation and transformation into Syrian Americans.
Orfalea, Gregory. Before the Flames: A Quest for the History of Arab-Americans (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1988). 100 years of Arab American history through both analysis and anecdotes, archival research and dozens of interviews across the country. A colorful, readable, insightful discussion. Has personal stories of Arab Americans in 20 cities, such as Brooklyn, Pittsburgh, Vicksburg, Cedar Rapids, North Dakota, Texas and California, including the story of Orfalea’s own family and his visit to his grandfather’s village in Syria. Has useful bibliography.
Pulcini, Theodore. “Trends in Research on Arab Americans” Journal of American Ethnic History 12, no. 4 (Summer 1993). Review of the literature on the rise of Arab American ethnic identity.
Schefelman, Janice Jordan. A Peddler’s Dream Illus. Tom Shefelman. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992). A young Lebanese American man overcomes many hardships as he travels the countryside by foot to seek his fortune. He eventually becomes owner of a large store and is able to provide a secure life for his family. This novel portrays the experience of many Arab immigrants in the 19th century.
Shain, Yossi. “Arab Americans at a Crossroads” Journal of Palestine Studies XXV, no. 3 (Spring 1996). The various political strategies of Arab American organizations for influencing U.S. Middle East policy. See footnotes for other articles on Arab American political activism.
Shakir, Evelyn. “Arab-American Literature” in New Immigrant Literatures in the United States, edited by Alpana Sharma Knippling (Green Press, 1996).
Shakir, Evelyn. Bint Arab: Arab and Arab American Women in the United States (Praeger, 1997). From Christian peasant immigrants of the late 19th century to their assimilated granddaughters, rediscovering their ethnic heritage and fighting today’s political battles, and the recent, mostly Muslim, immigrants. Corrects stereotypes of Arab women as passive and downtrodden; presents a diversity of articulate and spirited women in a complex cultural situation. Based on personal interviews, census records and club minutes.
Suleiman, Michael. “The Arab Community in the United States: A Comparison of Lebanese and Non-Lebanese” in The Lebanese in the World: A Century of Emigration, edited by Albert Hourani and Nadim Shehadi (London, I. B. Tauris, 1992).
“The Arab-American Left” in The Immigrant Left, edited by Paul Buhle and Dan Georgakas (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1996).
Taking Root, Bearing Fruit: The Arab-American Experience (Washington, DC: American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, 1984). Oral history of Arab American communities: North Dakota, Vicksburg, New Castle, Flint, and Providence. Filled with anecdotes and the story of the voyage of one young immigrant at the turn of the century.
Taking Root Vol. II. (Washington, DC: American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, 1985). Oral history of Arab American communities: Allentown, Birmingham, Boston, Brooklyn, Detroit, Jacksonville, Portland, San Francisco, Utica, Worcester, MA. Yemeni farmworkers.
Younis, Adele L.; Philip M. Kayal, ed. The Coming of the Arabic-Speaking People to the United States (Staten Island, NY: Center for Migration Studies, 1995). A study of Lebanese and Syrian immigration to the U.S. and the life and culture of the early immigrant community. Explores why they came, the image of American in the Near East, and the role of missionaries and other Americans in Ottoman Syria.
Zogby, John. Arab America today: A Demographic Profile of Arab Americans (Washington, DC: Arab American Institute, 1990). 42 page booklet. Analysis of data from the 1990 Census, including settlement patterns, family and individual characteristics, education, occupation, income, regional variations, and immigration during the 1980s.
ADC Times (Washington, DC 202-244-2990). ADC bimonthly newsletter covering current ADC campaigns and Arab American issues. Goes primarily to ADC members.
Al-Hewar Magazine (Vienna, VA: 703-281-6277; email@example.com; http://www.alhewar.com). Bimonthly magazine, covering Arab American issues and Arab culture, religion, politics and civilization.
Al-Jadid: A Record of Arab Culture and Arts (Los Angeles: 213-957-1291). Quarterly newspaper covering Arab and Arab American cultural issues.
Al-Nashra (Alexandria, VA: Arab Media House; 703-551-2071). Monthly newspaper covering Arab American and Arab world issues.
The Arab American News (Dearborn, MI: 313-582-4888). Weekly bilingual newspaper covering Arab American and Arab world news.
Beirut Times (Los Angeles; 213-469-4354). Weekly bilingual newspaper covering Arab American and Arab world news.
The News Circle (Glendale, CA; 818-507-0333). Monthly magazine covering Arab American and Arab world issues.
“Arab Americans.” Video, 30 min., 4th-10th grade. Examines Arab American immigration. (Available from AWAIR, 510-704-0517).
“Arabs in America.” Video 28 min. (Wolf and Friedlander, Center for Near East Studies, UCLA, 1981). Arab immigration since the 19th century, problems and adjustments, old photos, interviews, special focus on Michigan and Illinois. (Available from AWAIR).
“Benaat Chicago (Daughters of Chicago): Growing up Arab and Female in Chicago.” Video 30 min. 1996 (Jennifer Bing-Canar, Mary Zerkel, American Friends Service Committee, Chicago). Mothers and daughters on Chicago’s southwest side, intergenerational issues, stereotypes and racism toward Arabs and Arab women, pride in their cultural heritage. (AFSC, 312-427-2533).
“Palestinian Portraits.” Video, 22 min. (Simone de Bagno, United Nations) Palestinian Americans discuss their deep-rooted identification with the culture, history, land and future of Palestine. (Available from AWAIR
Tahrir Radio Show: WBAI 99.5 in New York City. Live-streamed on the Internet at <http://18.104.22.168/rams/wbai.ram> Covers Arab American, Arab, Muslim and Middle East issues and culture. Hosted by Barbara Nimri Aziz. <Http://www.radiotahrir.com/>
“Tales from Arab Detroit.” Video, 45 min. 1995. (Joan Mandell, Olive Branch Publications). American-born children of Arab immigrants and their parents trying to pass on cherished traditions and language in a world of McDonalds and MTV.. Poetry, song, dance, and everyday life. Traditional storytelling and the new stories being told as they are lived.. (ACCESS, 313-842-7010).
Arab American Almanac, Joseph Haiek, publisher. (Glendale, CA: News Circle Publishing House, 1992). 448 page book listing Arab American organizations, press and media, religious institutions, leaders. 100 pages on Arab civilization (math, science, philosophy, language, music, poetry and art) and Arab American literary figures (Gibran, Naimy, Rihani, Hitti, Madey). Also has information on each Arab country and on Arab American organizations in each state.
The Arab-American Directory (Arlington, VA: Arab Media House, 1995-96). Lists information on each Arab country, Arab ambassadors-embassies-consulates-UN missions, notable Arab Americans, Arab American organizations, businesses, Arab culture. Published annually.
Arabic Business Directory (Falls Church, VA: Arabian Advertising Agency). National listings of businesses, organizations, etc. Published annually.
Arabic Yellow Pages (Playa Del Rey, CA: ATW, Inc.) National 488 page directory of businesses, organizations, etc. Published annually.
Aramco World Magazine. March-April 1975/Nov.-Dec. 1976/Sept.-Oct.1986 issues on Arab Americans. Photos. July-August 1990 – Arab American poets.
"Living Memories: How to Do an Oral History" (Washington, DC: American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, 1985). Booklet, 16 pp.
National Museum of American History, Naff Arab-American Collection (1880-to date). Articles and books; taped life histories of 1st and 2nd generation Arab Americans; personal, family and organization documents; newspapers, magazines and newsletters; photos, music and artifacts.
William Abdallah Library newsletter. Brief current information and historical materials. (55 Emmonsdale Rd., W. Roxbury, MA 02132).
1990 Census. “Profiles of Selected Arab Ancestry Groups” (Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Ethnic and Hispanic Branch). Socio-economic data on Armenian, Assyrian, Egyptian, Iranian, Iraqi, Lebanese, Palestinian, and Syrian Americans. Document CPH-L-149. (Also: Document CPH-L-89. Lists ancestry and country of origin for population in each state.)