“યાહોમ કરીને પડો, ફત્તેહ છે આગે.”
“વીર સત્ય ને રસિક ટેકીપણું, અરિ પણ ગાશે દિલથી.”
” આ હકીકતમાં જે જે હું લખીશ તે મારી જાણ પરમાણે સાચું જ લખીશ.
પછી તે મારું સારું હો કે નરસું હો. લોકોને પસંદ પડો કે ન પડો. ” – મારી હકીકત
” સચ્ચાઇ તો એના રોમરોમમાં. નર્મદ સાહસિક પણ પછી.નર્મદ અવ્વલ દરજ્જે સત્યવક્તા.” – બ.ક. ઠાકોર
ગુજરાત સમાચારમાં પ્રગટ થયેલાં લેખોની લિંક્સ…
# ઑગષ્ટ – 20 , 2006 : # ઑગષ્ટ – 27, 2006 : # સપ્ટેમ્બર- 3 , 2006
# વેબ ગુર્જરી પર એક સરસ લેખ
# રચનાઓ ઃ ૧ ઃ ૨ ઃ
- 24 ઓગષ્ટ – 1833 , સુરત
- 25 ફેબ્રુઆરી – 1886, સુરત
- માતા – નવદુર્ગા ; પિતા –લાલશંકર (મુંબાઇમાં લહિયાનો વ્યવસાય )
- પત્ની – પ્રથમ – ગૌરી ( 1844, 11 વર્ષની વયે !, 1853 માં અવસાન પામ્યા ) ; બીજું લગ્ન ડાહીગૌરી સાથે (1856) ; ત્રીજું લગ્ન – વિધવા સ્ત્રી નર્મદાગૌરી સાથે (1869)
- સુરત અને મુંબાઇ
- 1850 એલ્ફિંસ્ટન ઇન્સ્ટિટ્યુટ, મુંબાઇમાંથી અભ્યાસ અધૂરો મૂક્યો.
- 1858 સુધી શિક્ષણ
- 1864- ‘ડાંડિયો’ પાક્ષિક શરુ કર્યું.
- 1838 – પાંચ વર્ષની વયે ભુલેશ્વરની ગામઠી શાળામાં શિક્ષણની શરુઆત
- 1843-44– સુરતમાં દુર્ગારામ મહેતાજી ની શાળામાં અભ્યાસ
- 1845 – મુંબાઇમાં અભ્યાસ
- 1850– કોલેજમાં ‘બુધ્ધિવર્ધક સભા’ ની સ્થાપના, તેમાં આપેલા વ્યાખ્યાન ‘ મંડળીઓમાં જવાથી થતા લાભ ‘ ઉપરથી પહેલો લેખ લખવા પ્રેરણા મળી. કદાચ આ ગુજરાતી સાહિત્યનો પ્રથમ લેખ હતો !
- 1856 – અભ્યાસ અધૂરો મૂકીને શિક્ષણ વ્યવસાય
- પ્રથમ કાવ્ય -આત્મબોધ
- તે વખતના બહુ ખ્યાતનામ કવિ દલપતરામ સાથેની સ્પર્ધામાં જૂદો ચાલ પાડવા નવા ઢબની કવિતાઓ લખવી શરુ કરી.
- 1858 – 23મી નવેમ્બરે પચીસ વર્ષની ઉમ્મરે નોકરીમાંથી રાજીનામું અને પૂર્ણ રીતે સરસ્વતીની સેવામાં આત્મસમર્પણ” મેં ઘેર આવી આંખમાં ઝળઝળીયા સાથે તેને અરજ કરી કે હવે હું તારે ખોળે છું.” – ગુજરાતી સાહિત્યને એક મહાન ઘટના
- 1860 – વૈષ્ણવ મહારાજ જદુનાથ સાથે વાદ વિવાદ , જ્ઞાતિ તરફથી બહિષ્કાર
- 1865 – આર્થિક કટોકટી , મુંબાઇ છોડી સુરતમાં નિવાસ
- 1860 -66 ઉચ્છેદક સુધારાનો નાયક , યુગપુરુષ તરીકેના નર્મદના જીવનનો સુવર્ણ કાળ, ઘણી પશ્ચિમી રીતરસમ અપનાવી
- 1864– ‘ડાંડિયો’ પાક્ષિક શરુ કર્યું
- 1865- 75 માનસ પરિવર્તન અને સુધારાવાદી વલણ ત્યજી સંરક્ષક સુધારાનો પ્રણેતા
- 1875- 85 આર્યત્વનો ઉપાસક અને ઉપદેશક
- 1876– મુંબાઇમાં આર્થિક સંકટ નીવારવા નાટકો લખવાનો નિષ્ફળ પ્રયાસ
- 1886 – તીવ્ર આર્થિક સંકટના કારણે નોકરી ન કરવાની પ્રતિજ્ઞા તોડવી પડી અને મુંબાઇમાં ધર્માદા ખાતામાં નોકરીમાં જોડાયા , પણ આઘાત ન જીરવાતાં તરત સંધિવા થી મૃત્યુ
- સંસ્કૃત સાહિત્ય અને નરસિંહ મહેતા થી લ ઇ દયારામ સુધીના ગુજરાતી સાહિત્યનો ઊંડો અભ્યાસ, તેના આધારે ગુજરાતીના પ્રથમ વ્યાકરણ અંગેના ગ્રંથો લખ્યા.
- ગુજરાતીના પહેલા – ગદ્યકાર, શબ્દકોશકાર, ચરિત્રકાર
- નવી શૈલીના કવિ
- સમાજ સુધારક
- ‘ જય જય ગરવી ગુજરાત’ ના સર્જક કવિ
- નિબંધ – નર્મગદ્ય
- કવિતા – નર્મકવિતા- આઠ ભાગ
- કોશ – નર્મકથાકોશ
- વ્યાકરણ – અલંકાર પ્રવેશ , રસ પ્રવેશ, પિંગળ પ્રવેશ
- આત્મકથા – મારી હકીકત
- ગુર્જર સાહિત્ય ભવન – અમૃતપર્વ યોજના; ‘નર્મદ’ – વેબસાઇટ; ગુજરાત સમાચાર
← શ્યામ સાધુ, Shyam Sadhuહરનિશ જાની, Harnish Jani →
|Narmadashankar Lalshankar Dave|
Narmad, aged 27. Wood engraving for his publication, after an oil painting. (1860)
|Native name||નર્મદાશંકર લાલશંકર દવે|
|Born||(1833-08-24)August 24, 1833|
Surat, British India
|Died||February 26, 1886(1886-02-26) (aged 52)|
Bombay (now Mumbai), British India
|Occupation||Poet, playwright, essayist, lexicographer and reformer|
|Spouse||Gulab (m. 1844–1853)|
Dahigauri (m. 1856–1886)
Subhadra (Narmadagauri) (m. 1869–1886)
Narmadashankar Lalshankar Dave (24 August 1833 – 26 February 1886), popularly known as Narmad, was a Gujarati poet, playwright, essayist, orator, lexicographer and reformer under the British Raj. He is considered to be the founder of modern Gujarati literature. After studying in Bombay, he stopped serving as a teacher to live by writing. During his prolific career, he introduced many literary forms in Gujarati. He faced economic struggles but proved himself as a dedicated reformer, speaking loudly against religious and social orthodoxy. His essays, poems, plays and prose were published in several collections. His Mari Hakikat, the first autobiography in Gujarati,[A] was published posthumously.[B] His poem Jai Jai Garavi Gujarat is now de facto state anthem of Gujarat state of India.
Narmad was born in Surat, Gujarat on 24 August 1833 to Lalshankar and Navdurga. His family home in Amliran, Surat was destroyed in the great fire of 25 April 1837 which was later reconstructed. He commenced schooling with Nana Mehta in Bhuleshwar, Bombay at age five. He later joined Fakir Mehta and Ichchha Mehta's school in Surat and moved to Bombay where he attended the Government Gujarati school of Balgovind Mehta at Pydhonie. He returned to Surat where he attended the school of Durgaram Mehta and Pranshankar Mehta. He was initiated in Upanayan at age eight. He started studying at the English School, Elphinstone Institute, Bombay on 6 January 1845, beginning college in June 1850. He delivered his first public speech Mandali Malvathi Thata Labh (Advantages of Forming An Organisation) that same year. His mother died on 23 November 1850 and he left college.
He was appointed as a teacher at the school of Rander on 1 May 1851. He again recited his early essay in Swadesh Hitechchhu Mandali and started Gyansagar magazine in July 1851. He was transferred to a school in Nanpara in March 1853. After the death of his wife Gulab, he left this position and went to Bombay, in January 1854. He returned to college on the suggestion of his friend Jhaverilal Umiyashankar and joined Buddhivardhak Sabha, a literary group in June 1854. He started learning Siddhant Kaumudi.
He became interested in poetry and started writing in September 1855, studying literary metre over the following year. He presided over Buddhivardhak Granth from March to December 1856. After his second marriage, he left college in August 1856, writing Pingal Pravesh in February 1857 and dedicating it to his father. He joined Gokuldas Tejpal Vidyalaya as a teacher and began studying Sanskrit literary works such as Laghu kaumudi, Chandralok, Nrisimhachampu, Kavyachampu, Prataprudra, Adhyatma Ramayana. He started at Central School as a teacher in February 1858, then resigned in November 1858 after deciding to pursue a literary career.
He studied Sanskrit grammar and poetry in Pune from November 1858 to March 1859. Deciding to study independently he returned to Bombay in March, where he met Dalpatram, a reformist Gujarati poet, in June 1859, and became involved in reform activities.
His wife Dahigauri returned to her parents' home. In 1860, he had discussed widow remarriage with religious leader Jadunathji Maharaj, which led to him becoming involved with the Maharaj Libel Case the next year. The case was filed by Jadunathji against writer Karsandas Mulji after the journalist published an article alleging sexual exploitation of women in his religious sect.
He visited Income Tax Commissioner Curtis regarding a surcharge on 3 February 1863. With the help of friends, he started a biweekly newsletter called Dandiyo, modeled after British weekly The Spectator, in September 1864. It was loudly reformist in its stand and attacked traditional customs of Hindu society. It ran until 1869 when it was merged with The Sunday Review.[C] On 18 January 1864, his father died, aged 56. He moved back to Surat in July 1865 and sheltered Savitagauri, a widow, in a neighbouring house. He published Narmagadya in September 1865. He was banished from his caste due to reform activities on 18 August but reinstated on 21 November 1866. The same year, he wrote his autobiographical work, Mari Hakikat, the first autobiography in Gujarati. He published Nayikavishaypravesh and Uttam Nayika dedicated to his then separated wife, Dahigauri. In early 1867, he published Narmakavita, a poetry collection. He had debts of 10,000 that caused him great concern. He married again in 1869. He published summaries of Ramayana, Mahabharata and Iliad in 1870. He published the school version of Narmagadya in 1874 and the edition for the government in 1875.
He moved back again to Bombay in March 1875, where he met Dayanand Saraswati, a reformist and founder of Arya Samaj, and started to become deeply religious. He published the first dictionary of Gujarati language in March 1876. He founded Vedsarasvati in Sarasvatimandir of Surat on 16 April 1877.
Aryanitidarshak Mandali performed his play Draupadi-Darshan in 1878. By 1880 he had become fully "believer" and performed Upanayana for his son that year. He wrote a play, Shri Sarshakuntal in 1881 which was performed. He published a translation of Bhagvad Gita in 1882. Although unhappy about breaking a resolve not to work for other people, he was forced due to financial difficulties into taking a position as a secretary to Gokuldas Tejpal Dharmakhata. He wrote a play, Shri Balkrishnavijay in 1883.
His health failing due to the stress of work starting a hostel, he left his job on 19 July 1885. After a prolonged eight month illness, he died of arthritis on 26 February 1886 in Bombay.
Main article: Works of Narmadashankar Dave
Narmad is considered to be the founder of modern Gujarati literature. He introduced many creative forms of writing to the Gujarati language, including pioneering works in autobiography, poetry, lexicography, historical plays and folk literature research. He was an outspoken journalist and pamphleteer. Narmad was a strong opponent of religious fanaticism and orthodoxy. He promoted nationalism and patriotism with famous songs such as Sahu Chalo Jeetva Jang, wrote about self-government and discussed having one national language, Hindustani, for all of India, nearly five decades before Mahatma Gandhi or Nehru. His poem Jai Jai Garavi Gujarat, written in the preface of Narmakosh, listed with a sense of pride all the cultural symbols that go into constituting the Gujarati identity. These symbols included things non-Hindu, implying that Gujarat belongs to all the castes, communities, races, religions and sects that live together there. The poem is now de facto state song of Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi acknowledged him for his philosophy of nonviolence.
His major collected works are Narmagadya (Gujarati: નર્મગદ્ય), collection of prose; Narmakavita (Gujarati: નર્મકવિતા), collection of poems; Narmakathakosh (Gujarati: નર્મકથાકોશ), collection of stories of characters of mythological literature and Narmakosh (Gujarati: નર્મકોશ), dictionary. His Mari Hakikat, the first autobiography in Gujarati, was published posthumously.
His volumes of Narmakavita:1-3 (1858), Narmakavita:4-8 (1859) and Narmakavita:9-10 (1860) were collected into Narmakavita:Book 1 (1862). Later Narmakavita:Book 2 (1863) was published. All his poetry was later collected together in Narmakavita (1864).
His poem, "Jai Jai Garavi Gujarat" (1873), is used as a de facto state song for Gujarat.
His Rasapravesh (1858), Pingalpravesh (1857), Alankarpravesh (1858), Narmavyakaran Part I and II (1865), Varnavichar (1865), Nayika Vishaypravesh (1866) are his collections of essays on poetics with historical importance.
Rituvarnan (1861), Hinduoni Padati (1864), Kavicharit (1865), Suratni Mukhtesar Hakikat (1865), Iliadno Sar (1870), Mahipatram Rupram Mehta (1870), Mahapurushona Charitra (1870), Mahabharatano Sar (1870), Ramayanano Sar (1870), Sarshakuntal (1881), Bhagvadgitanu Bhashantar (1882) are his prose works. His other writings between 1850 and 1865 collected in Narmagadya (1865) and posthumously published Narmagadya-2 (1936) are his other prose works.
His essays are collected and edited in three volumes. They are Narmadgadya or Narmadashankar Lalashankarna Gadyatmak Granthono Sangrah (1875) edited by Mahipatram Rupram Nilkanth, Narmadnu Mandir-Gadya Vibhag (1937) edited by Vishwanath Bhatt and Narmadgadya(1975) edited by Gambhirsinh Gohil. His fifteen prose works were collected in Junu Narmadgadya Part I, II (1865, 1874)and are also important.
He had researched and edited several works. Manohar Swami's Manhar Pad (1860), Narmakosh: Issue 1 (1861), Narmakosh: Issue 2 (1862), Narmakosh:Issue 3 (1864), Narmakosh:Issue 4 (1865). Narmakathakosh (1870), Dayaramkrut Kavyasangrah (1865), Stree Geet Sangrah (1870) of songs popular in Nagar Brahmin ladies, Premanand's Dashamskandh (1872) and the complete issue of Narmakosh (1873) are his edited and researched works.
Tusli Vaidhvyachitra (dialogue, 1859), Ramjanaki Darshan (1876), Draupadidarshan (1878), Balkrishnavijay (1886), Krishnakumari are plays and dialogues. His Seetaharan (1878) was a previously unpublished play. Rajyarang Part I, II (1874, 1876) are his works on ancient and modern world history. Dharmavichar is his work on philosophy. Gujarat Sarvasangrah (1887) and Kathiawar Sarvasangrah (1887) are also historical works.
Mari Hakikat, his autobiography written in 1866 and published posthumously in 1933, is the first autobiography written in Gujarati. His notes and letters were later published as Uttar Narmad Charitra (1939).
Narmad:Mari Hakikat or Narmad:My Life, a critically acclaimedsoliloquy based on his writings and life, was written and directed by Harish Trivedi and performed by Chandrakant Shah. It premiered in Dayton, Ohio, US in 1995 and later toured India, the UK and France.Chandravadan Mehta wrote a play based on his life.
Narmad's house, Saraswati Mandir, is restored and converted into museum. Several places in Gujarat were named after him, such as Central Library in Surat. Busts of him are erected across Gujarat such as in Ahmedabad, Vadodara and Surat. In 2004, South Gujarat University was renamed Veer Narmad South Gujarat University in his memory. The replica of his house is also constructed in the university campus. The literary honour Narmad Suvarna Chandrak has been yearly awarded by Narmad Sahitya Sabha, Surat since 1940. A special cover was released by India Post on his 175th birth anniversary in 2008.
He married Gulab, daughter of Surajram Shastri of Sudder Court, Surat; on 29 April 1844. She gave a birth to girl in 1852 who died in 15 days after birth. Gulab died on 5 October 1853 following stillbirth. In May 1856, he married Dahigauri, daughter of Tripuranand Shastri, who separated from him in 1860. He then married Subhadra (later Narmadagauri), a widow of his caste, in 1869 to break the taboo of widow remarriage and she gave birth to his son Jayshankar in 1870. Jayshankar never married. He worked as a clerk for Bombay Municipality. Jayshankar died on 31 March 1910 of plague.
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- ^ abcPandya, Kusum H (31 December 1986). Gujarati Atmakatha Tena Swarupagat Prashno. Thesis. Department of Gujarati, Sardar Patel University. Shodhganga web (in Gujarati). pp. 200–220. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
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- ^K. M. George (1992). Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology: Surveys and poems. Sahitya Akademi. p. 122. ISBN 978-81-7201-324-0.
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- ^Meghnad Desai (2 August 2011). The Rediscovery of India. Penguin Books Limited. pp. 229–. ISBN 978-81-8475-566-4.
- ^ abY. A. Parmar (1987). The Mahyavanshi: The Success Story of a Scheduled Caste. Mittal Publications. pp. 83–84. GGKEY:KEQ4SL0H0RJ.
- ^ abcSaurabh Shah. "'ડાંડિયા', 'નર્મકોશ' અને જય જય ગરવી ગુજરાત". Mumbai Samachar (in Gujarati). Retrieved 13 August 2015.
- ^ ab"Biography of Narmadashankar Dave". poemhunter.com. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- ^ ab"Poet Narmad". kamat.com. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- ^ ab"Narmad, Gujarati Saraswats, Sangeet Bhavan". sangeetbhavantrust.com. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- ^ ab"Gujarati Language, History of Gujarati Language". indianmirror.com. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- ^ abcAmaresh Datta (1987). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: A-Devo. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 909–910. ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1.
- ^ ab"Narmad". Internet Archive. 24 September 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
- ^Kumar, Alok. "India Foundation, Dayton, OH". OoCities. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
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- ^Tv9 Gujarati (2015-08-23), Surat: Kavi Narmad's house regains glory - Tv9 Gujarati, retrieved 2017-07-23
- ^"VNSGU to build a real size replica of poet Narmad's house". DeshGujarat. 25 August 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- ^"Special Cover-Narmadashankar Dave-Surpex 2008". Indian Stamp Ghar. 6 December 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- ^In the 1840s, Durgaram Mehta had written his personal diary , Nityanondh but it was not an attempt of autobiography as in western style. Mahipatram Rupram had written a biography, Durgaram Charitra (1879) based on the diary.
- ^Narmad had written his autobiography in 1866 but he had requested it to be published posthumously. It was published in 1933, on his birth centenary. Two autobiographies were published before it, Hu Pote (1900) by Narayan Hemchandra and Satyana Prayogo (1925-1929) by Mahatma Gandhi.
- ^The Sunday Review was also closed after some time. Dandiyo was revived by Natwarlal Mulchand Vimawala in 1936. It was later renamed Prabhakar in March 1947.